Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, a series of Moroccan Muslim dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad al-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. In 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956.



total: 716,550 sq km
land: 716,300 sq km
water: 250 sq km


Mediterranean in the north, becoming more extreme in the interior; in the south, hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew

Natural resources

phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

People and Society


37,067,420 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab-Berber 99%, other 1%


Arabic (official), Berber languages (Tamazight (official), Tachelhit, Tarifit), French (often the language of business, government, and diplomacy); note - the proportion of Berber speakers is disputed


Muslim 99% (official; virtually all Sunni, <0.1% Shia), other 1% (includes Christian, Jewish, and Baha'i); note - Jewish about 3,000-3,500 (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.88% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Rabat

Executive branch

chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Aziz AKHANNOUCH (since 7 October 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
House of Councillors or Majlis al-Mustacharine (120 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college of local councils, professional organizations, and labor unions; members serve 6-year terms)
House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwab (395 seats; 305 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 90 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - 60 seats reserved for women and 30 seats for those under age 40 in regional multi-seat constituencies, with the seats divided proportionally among the 12 regions by population size of the region


Economic overview

lower middle-income North African economy; ongoing recovery from recent drought; rebounding via tourism, manufacturing, and aeronautics industries; major US free trade agreement; developing energy exporter 

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$303.336 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$8,100 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, sugar beet, milk, potatoes, olives, tangerines/mandarins, tomatoes, oranges, barley, onions


automotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism


7.49% of GDP (2021 est.)


$47.078 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Spain 20%, France 19%, India 5%, Brazil 5%, Italy 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

cars, fertilizers, insulated wiring, phosphoric acid, clothing and apparel (2021)


$60.047 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Spain 19%, France 11%, China 9%, United States 7%, Germany 5%, Turkey 5%, Italy 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, natural gas, wheat, coal (2021)

Exchange rates

Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per US dollar -
8.988 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, May 11, 2023