Mozambique

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Mozambique ended almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony when it gained independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s.

Geography

Area

total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Climate

tropical to subtropical

Natural resources

coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

People and Society

Population

total: 33,350,954
male: 16,449,734
female: 16,901,220 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

African 99% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Mestizo 0.8%, other (includes European, Indian, Pakistani, Chinese) 0.2% (2017 est.)

Languages

Makhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Tsonga 8.6%, Nyanja 8.1, Sena 7.1%, Lomwe 7.1%, Chuwabo 4.7%, Ndau 3.8%, Tswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 27.2%, Muslim 18.9%, Zionist Christian 15.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.3%, Anglican 1.7%, other 4.8%, none 13.9%, unspecified 2.5% (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

2.54% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Maputo

Executive branch

chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; 248 members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

low-income East African economy; subsistence farming dominates labor force; return to growth led by agriculture and extractive industries; Islamist insurgency threatens natural gas projects in north; ongoing foreign debt restructuring and resolution under IMF Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$41.237 billion (2022 est.)
$39.515 billion (2021 est.)
$38.597 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,300 (2022 est.)
$1,200 (2021 est.)
$1,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, sugarcane, maize, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, bananas, onions, rice, coconuts (2022)

Industries

aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages

Exports

$9.409 billion (2022 est.)
$6.404 billion (2021 est.)
$4.37 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

India 22%, South Africa 9%, South Korea 8%, Italy 7%, China 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

coal, aluminum, coke, natural gas, gold (2022)

Imports

$15.913 billion (2022 est.)
$10.392 billion (2021 est.)
$8.661 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

South Africa 23%, South Korea 20%, China 12%, India 10%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, iron alloys, chromium ore, refined copper (2022)

Exchange rates

meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
63.851 (2022 est.)
65.465 (2021 est.)
69.465 (2020 est.)
62.548 (2019 est.)
60.326 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Monday, July 08, 2024