Mozambique

Country Summary

Introduction

Background

Mozambique ended almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony when it gained independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s.

Geography

Area

total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Climate

tropical to subtropical

Natural resources

coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

People and Society

Population

32,513,805 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

African 99% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Mestizo 0.8%, other (includes European, Indian, Pakistani, Chinese) 0.2% (2017 est.)

Languages

Makhuwa 26.1%, Portuguese (official) 16.6%, Tsonga 8.6%, Nyanja 8.1, Sena 7.1%, Lomwe 7.1%, Chuwabo 4.7%, Ndau 3.8%, Tswa 3.8%, other Mozambican languages 11.8%, other 0.5%, unspecified 1.8% (2017 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 27.2%, Muslim 18.9%, Zionist Christian 15.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.3%, Anglican 1.7%, other 4.8%, none 13.9%, unspecified 2.5% (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

2.55% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Maputo

Executive branch

chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Adriano Afonso MALEIANE (since 3 March 2022); note - President NYUSI removed Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO from office on 3 March 2022 as part of a cabinet reshuffle

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; 248 members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

low-income East African economy; mostly rural labor force; natural resource rich; strong South African ties; Islamist terrorism in north endangers newly discovered natural gas; currently in court over massive (possibly unauthorized) debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$39.351 billion (2021 est.)
$38.442 billion (2020 est.)
$38.923 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,200 (2021 est.)
$1,200 (2020 est.)
$1,300 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, maize, milk, bananas, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, rice, sorghum, potatoes

Industries

aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages

Exports

$6.404 billion (2021 est.)
$4.37 billion (2020 est.)
$5.6 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

South Africa 16%, India 13%, China 12%, Italy 7%, United Arab Emirates 5%, Germany 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

coal, aluminum, gold, natural gas, electricity, titanium, coke (2021)

Imports

$10.392 billion (2021 est.)
$8.63 billion (2020 est.)
$9.503 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

South Africa 31%, India 18%, China 17% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, chromium, iron, bauxite, electricity (2019)

Exchange rates

meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
65.465 (2021 est.)
69.465 (2020 est.)
62.548 (2019 est.)
60.326 (2018 est.)
63.584 (2017 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, February 20, 2024