Netherlands

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830, Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom.

Geography

Area

total: 41,543 sq km

land: 33,893 sq km

water: 7,650 sq km

Climate

temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land

People and Society

Population

17,400,824 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Dutch 75.4%, EU (excluding Dutch) 6.4%, Turkish 2.4%, Moroccan 2.4%, Surinamese 2.1%, Indonesian 2%, other 9.3% (2021 est.)

Languages

Dutch (official); note - Frisian is an official language in Fryslan province; Frisian, Low Saxon, Limburgish, Romani, and Yiddish have protected status under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; Dutch is the official language of the three special municipalities of the Caribbean Netherlands; English is a recognized regional language on Sint Eustatius and Saba; Papiamento is a recognized regional language on Bonaire

Religions

Roman Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.8% (includes Dutch Reformed, Protestant Church of The Netherlands, Calvinist), Muslim 5%, other 5.9% (includes Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish), none 54.1% (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

0.36% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Capital

name: Amsterdam; note - The Hague is the seat of government

Executive branch

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess Catharina-Amalia (daughter of King WILLEM-ALEXANDER, born 7 December 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Ministers Sigrid KAAG and Wopke HOEKSTRA (since 10 January 2022) and Carola SCHOUTEN (since 26 October 2017); note - Mark RUTTE heads his fourth cabinet

Legislative branch

description: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of:
First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial council members by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote to serve up to 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income European economy; core EU member; chemical, oil, and machinery exporter; some age-based income inequality; substantial amount of independent contractor employees; manageable public debt; key international aid funder.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$945.48 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$54,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, sugar beet, pork, onions, wheat, poultry, tomatoes, carrots/turnips, beef

Industries

agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Exports

$719.78 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 20%, Belgium 12%, United Kingdom 9%, France 7%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, photography equipment, computers (2019)

Imports

$622.66 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 15%, China 11%, Belgium 9%, United States 8%, Russia 7%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, computers, cars (2019)


Page last updated: Friday, May 20, 2022