Country Summary



Niger became independent from France in 1960. It is one of the poorest countries in the world with insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa.



total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km


desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Natural resources

uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum

People and Society


25,396,840 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)


Hausa, Zarma, French (official), Fufulde, Tamashek, Kanuri, Gurmancema, Tagdal

note: represents the most-spoken languages; Niger has 10 national languages: Arabic, Buduma, Fulfuldé, Guimancema, Hausa, Kanuri, Sonay-Zarma, Tamajaq, Tassawaq, and Tubu


Muslim 99.3%, Christian 0.3%, animist 0.2%, none 0.1% (2012 est.)

Population growth rate

3.66% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Niamey

Executive branch

chief of state: President of the National Council for Safeguarding of the Homeland (CNSP) General Abdourahame TIANI (since 28 July 2023); note - deposed president BAZOUM has been under house arrest since a military coup on 26 July 2023
head of government: Prime Minister Ali Mahaman Lamine ZEINE (since 9 August 2023)

Legislative branch

description: the CNSP dissolved the unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 statutory seats - 166 currently; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms) as part of the 26 July 2023 military coup


Economic overview

low-income Sahel economy; major instability and humanitarian crises limit economic activity; COVID-19 eliminated recent antipoverty gains; economy rebounding since December 2020 Nigerian border reopening and new investments; uranium resource rich

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$33.406 billion (2022 est.)
$29.963 billion (2021 est.)
$29.554 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,300 (2022 est.)
$1,200 (2021 est.)
$1,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

millet, cow peas, sorghum, onions, milk, groundnuts, cassava, cabbages, goat milk, fruit


uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses


$1.487 billion (2021 est.)
$1.338 billion (2020 est.)
$1.387 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 54%, China 25%, France 7%, Pakistan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, sesame seeds, uranium, refined petroleum, onions (2021)


$4.027 billion (2021 est.)
$3.542 billion (2020 est.)
$3.395 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 19%, France 9%, United Arab Emirates 7%, Cote d'Ivoire 6%, India 6%, Nigeria 5%, Togo 5%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

rice, packaged medicines, palm oil, cars, cement (2019)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
623.76 (2022 est.)
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, April 17, 2024