Nigeria

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Africa’s most populous country attained independence from Britain in 1960. Adoption of a new constitution in 1999 completed a peaceful transition to civilian rule. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy despite widespread corruption and crime.

Geography

Area

total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Climate

varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

People and Society

Population

total: 236,747,130
male: 119,514,449
female: 117,232,681 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.9% (2018 est.)

Languages

English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Religions

Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other 0.6% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

2.52% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

federal presidential republic

Capital

name: Abuja

Executive branch

chief of state: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023); note - the president is chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces
head of government: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives (360 seats statutory, 258 current; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

largest African market economy; enormous but mostly lower middle income labor force; major oil exporter; key telecommunications and finance industries; susceptible to energy prices; regional leader in critical infrastructure; primarily agrarian employment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.085 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.05 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.014 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$5,000 (2022 est.)
$4,900 (2021 est.)
$4,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

yams, cassava, maize, oil palm fruit, rice, taro, bananas, vegetables, sorghum, groundnuts (2022)

Industries

crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Exports

$69.091 billion (2022 est.)
$50.856 billion (2021 est.)
$39.937 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Spain 13%, India 12%, France 7%, US 7%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, fertilizers, refined petroleum, gold (2022)

Imports

$77.049 billion (2022 est.)
$67.478 billion (2021 est.)
$72.178 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 32%, Belgium 11%, Netherlands 10%, India 8%, US 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, garments, plastics, cars (2022)

Exchange rates

nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
425.979 (2022 est.)
401.152 (2021 est.)
358.811 (2020 est.)
306.921 (2019 est.)
306.084 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024