Nigeria

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Africa’s most populous country attained independence from Britain in 1960. Adoption of a new constitution in 1999 completed a peaceful transition to civilian rule. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy.

Geography

Area

total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km

Climate

varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

People and Society

Population

225,082,083 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018 est.)

Languages

English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages

Religions

Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other .6% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

2.53% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

federal presidential republic

Capital

name: Abuja

Executive branch

chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja-Federal Capital Territory; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

one of the largest West African economies; oil-dependent exports, revenues, and credit; COVID-19 and oil price shocks have resulted in slowing growth, high inflation, increasing unemployment; frequent disruptions due to political instability, especially in the north

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1,013,530,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$4,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, yams, maize, oil palm fruit, rice, vegetables, sorghum, groundnuts, fruit, sweet potatoes

Industries

crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Exports

$39.94 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

India 16%, Spain 10%, United States 7%, France 7%, Netherlands 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, scrap vessels, flexible metal tubing, cocoa beans (2019)

Imports

$72.18 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 30%, Netherlands 11%, United States 6%, Belgium 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, wheat, laboratory glassware, packaged medicines (2019)


Page last updated: Friday, May 13, 2022