Country Summary



The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered from Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, the nascent sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew his father, and during his 50-year rule ushered Oman into the modern age.



total: 309,500 sq km
land: 309,500 sq km
water: 0 sq km


dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Natural resources

petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

People and Society


3,833,465 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African


Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Swahili, Urdu, Indian dialects


Muslim 85.9%, Christian 6.4%, Hindu 5.7%, other and unaffiliated 2% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.8% (2023 est.)


Government type

absolute monarchy


name: Muscat

Executive branch

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister HAYTHAM bin Tariq Al Said (since 11 January 2020); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister HAYTHAM bin Tariq Al Said (since 11 January 2020)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Council of Oman or Majlis Oman consists of:
Council of State or Majlis al-Dawla (85 seats including the chairman; members appointed by the sultan from among former government officials and prominent educators, businessmen, and citizens)
Consultative Assembly or Majlis al-Shura (86 seats; members directly elected in single- and 2-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms); note - since political reforms in 2011, legislation from the Consultative Council is submitted to the Council of State for review by the Royal Court


Economic overview

high-income, oil-based economy; large welfare system; growing government debt; citizenship-based labor force growth policy; US free trade agreement; diversifying portfolio; high female labor force participation

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$155.028 billion (2021 est.)
$150.378 billion (2020 est.)
$155.639 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$34,300 (2021 est.)
$33,100 (2020 est.)
$33,800 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

dates, tomatoes, vegetables, goat milk, milk, cucumbers, green chillies/peppers, watermelons, sorghum, melons


crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber


0.05% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.04% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.04% of GDP (2018 est.)


$46.324 billion (2021 est.)
$35.72 billion (2020 est.)
$43.584 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

China 46%, India 8%, Japan 6%, South Korea 6%, United Arab Emirates 6%, Saudi Arabia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, fertilizers, iron  (2021)


$36.502 billion (2021 est.)
$34.022 billion (2020 est.)
$32.569 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 36%, China 10%, Japan 7%, India 7%, United States 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, gold, iron (2019)

Exchange rates

Omani rials (OMR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.385 (2021 est.)
0.385 (2020 est.)
0.385 (2019 est.)
0.385 (2018 est.)
0.385 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 14, 2023