Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century and were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935, the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Following Japanese occupation during World War II, the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence on 4 July 1946.



total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km


tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Natural resources

timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

People and Society


116,434,200 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Tagalog 24.4%, Bisaya/Binisaya 11.4%, Cebuano 9.9%, Ilocano 8.8%, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo 8.4%, Bikol/Bicol 6.8%, Waray 4%, other local ethnicity 26.1%, other foreign ethnicity 0.1% (2010 est.)


unspecified Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan


Roman Catholic 79.5%, Muslim 6%, Iglesia ni Cristo 2.6%, Evangelical 2.4%, National Council of Churches in the Philippines 1.1%, other 7.4%, none <0.1% (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

1.58% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Manila

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ferdinand "BongBong" MARCOS, Jr. (since 30 June 2022); Vice President Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ferdinand "BongBong" MARCOS, Jr. (since 30 June 2022); Vice President Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of:
Senate or Senado (24 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (316 seats; 253 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 63 representing minorities directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)


Economic overview

diversified, growing East Asian economy; major semiconductor, ship-building, and electronics exporter; significant remittances; COVID-19 hit consumption and investments hard; regional tensions with China; major geothermal energy user

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$921.826 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$8,100 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, rice, coconuts, maize, bananas, vegetables, tropical fruit, plantains, pineapples, cassava


semiconductors and electronics assembly, business process outsourcing, food and beverage manufacturing, construction, electric/gas/water supply, chemical products, radio/television/communications equipment and apparatus, petroleum and fuel, textile and garments, non-metallic minerals, basic metal industries, transport equipment


$87.79 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

China 16%, United States 15%, Japan 13%, Hong Kong 12%, Singapore 7%, Germany 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, office machinery/parts, insulated wiring, semiconductors, transformers (2019)


$126.508 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

China 29%, Japan 8%, South Korea 7%, United States 6%, Singapore 6%, Indonesia 6%, Thailand 5%, Taiwan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, cars, crude petroleum, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar -
49.255 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023