Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorder weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland became a Soviet satellite state after World War II. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 brought the communist era to a close.



total: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km


temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Natural resources

coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land

People and Society


total: 38,746,310
male: 18,441,415
female: 20,304,895 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7% (2011 est.)


Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2%; note - data represent the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)


Catholic 84.6% (Roman Catholic 84.6% and other Catholic 0.3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentecostal), other 0.3% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Church of Jesus Christ), unspecified 13% (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

-1% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Warsaw

Executive branch

chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Donald TUSK (since 11 December 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ, Krzysztof GAWKOWSKI (both since 11 December 2023)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
Sejm (460 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote with 5% threshold of total votes needed for parties and 8% for coalitions to gain seats; minority parties exempt from threshold; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

diversified, high-growth European economy; COVID-19 led to first recession in nearly 3 decades, albeit small; EU and NATO member; bolstering US relations; economic concentration in western region; aging labor force; growing debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.388 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.319 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.233 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$37,700 (2022 est.)
$34,900 (2021 est.)
$32,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, sugar beets, wheat, maize, potatoes, triticale, apples, rapeseed, barley, rye (2022)


machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles


$434.008 billion (2022 est.)
$392.694 billion (2021 est.)
$318.967 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, Czechia 6%, France 6%, UK 5%, Netherlands 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

vehicle parts/accessories, plastic products, garments, electric batteries, computers (2022)


$421.226 billion (2022 est.)
$369.82 billion (2021 est.)
$284.648 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 23%, China 11%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5%, Czechia 4% (2022)

Imports - commodities

garments, crude petroleum, cars, vehicle parts/accessories, plastic products (2022)

Exchange rates

zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
4.458 (2022 est.)
3.862 (2021 est.)
3.9 (2020 est.)
3.839 (2019 est.)
3.612 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 15, 2024