Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Under PETER I (1682-1725), the Principality of Muscovy expanded and became the Russian Empire. The Romanov dynasty was overthrown in 1917, ushering in communism and the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The USSR collapsed in 1991, and after a period of political and economic turmoil, Russia shifted toward a centralized, authoritarian state under President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present).



total: 17,098,242 sq km
land: 16,377,742 sq km
water: 720,500 sq km


ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

Natural resources

wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, bauxite, reserves of rare earth elements, timber; note - formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

People and Society


total: 140,820,810
male: 65,496,805
female: 75,324,005 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9% (2010 est.)


Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1%; note - data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)


Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.49% (2024 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential federation


name: Moscow

Executive branch

chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government: Premier Mikhail Vladimirovich MISHUSTIN (since 16 January 2020)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of:
Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (170 seats statutory, 169 as of April 2023; 2 members in each of the 83 federal administrative units (see note below) - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg - appointed by the top executive and legislative officials; members serve 4-year terms)
State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats (see note below); as of February 2014, the electoral system reverted to a mixed electoral system for the 2016 election, in which one-half of the members are directly elected by simple majority vote and one-half directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

natural resource-rich Eurasian economy; leading energy exporter to Europe and Asia; decreased oil export reliance; endemic corruption, Ukrainian invasion, and lack of green infrastructure limit investment and have led to sanctions

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.027 trillion (2022 est.)
$4.112 trillion (2021 est.)
$3.894 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$27,500 (2022 est.)
$28,100 (2021 est.)
$26,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, sugar beets, milk, barley, potatoes, sunflower seeds, maize, soybeans, chicken, pork (2022)


complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts


$640.688 billion (2022 est.)
$549.9 billion (2021 est.)
$381.49 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 21%, India 8%, Germany 6%, Turkey 5%, Italy 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, coal, fertilizers (2022)


$347.375 billion (2022 est.)
$379.946 billion (2021 est.)
$304.837 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 39%, Germany 8%, Turkey 5%, Kazakhstan 5%, South Korea 3% (2022)

Imports - commodities

packaged medicine, broadcasting equipment, cars, garments, plastic products (2022)

Exchange rates

Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
68.485 (2022 est.)
73.654 (2021 est.)
72.105 (2020 est.)
64.738 (2019 est.)
62.668 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, July 17, 2024