Singapore

Country Summary

Introduction

Geography

Area

total: 719 sq km
land: 709.2 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Climate

tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

People and Society

Population

5,975,383 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.7%, Indian 8.9%, other 3.2% (2021 est.)

Languages

English (official) 48.3%, Mandarin (official) 29.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 8.7%, Malay (official) 9.2%, Tamil (official) 2.5%, other 1.4%; note - data represent language most frequently spoken at home (2020 est.)

Religions

Buddhist 31.1%, Christian 18.9%, Muslim 15.6%, Taoist 8.8%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 20% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.9% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Singapore

Executive branch

chief of state: President THARMAN Shanmugaratnam (since 14 September 2023)
head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (104 seats statutory, 103 current term; 93 members directly elected by simple majority popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 12 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members increased to 12 for the 2020 election for the first time

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, service-based Southeast Asian economy; renowned for financial markets and Asian Infrastructure Exchange; business-driven regulations; low unemployment; electronics, oil, and chemicals exporter; continuing education investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$609.002 billion (2022 est.)
$587.573 billion (2021 est.)
$539.641 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$108,000 (2022 est.)
$107,700 (2021 est.)
$94,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

poultry, eggs, vegetables, pork, duck meat, spinach, pig offals, bird eggs, pig fat, cabbages

Industries

electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade

Exports

$870.806 billion (2022 est.)
$781.068 billion (2021 est.)
$634.034 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 16%, Hong Kong 16%, United States 8%, Malaysia 9%, Indonesia 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, gold, packaged medicines, appliances, photo lab equipment (2021)

Imports

$701.629 billion (2022 est.)
$631.615 billion (2021 est.)
$525.324 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 16%, Malaysia 11%, United States 9%, Taiwan 7%, Japan 5%, Indonesia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, gold, gas turbines (2019)

Exchange rates

Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
1.379 (2022 est.)
1.343 (2021 est.)
1.38 (2020 est.)
1.364 (2019 est.)
1.349 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, April 09, 2024