Singapore

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

A Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The British founded modern Singapore as a trading colony on the site in 1819. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links.

Geography

Area

total: 719 sq km

land: 709.2 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Climate

tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

People and Society

Population

5,921,231 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.7%, Indian 8.9%, other 3.2% (2021 est.)

Languages

English (official) 48.3%, Mandarin (official) 29.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 8.7%, Malay (official) 9.2%, Tamil (official) 2.5%, other 1.4%; note - data represent language most frequently spoken at home (2020 est.)

Religions

Buddhist 31.1%, Christian 18.9%, Muslim 15.6%, Taoist 8.8%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 20% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.92% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Singapore

Executive branch

chief of state: President HALIMAH Yacob (since 14 September 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004, reelected 10 July 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (104 seats; 93 members directly elected by popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 12 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members increased to 12 for the 2020 election for the first time (2021)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, service-based Southeast Asian economy; renowned for financial markets and Asian Infrastructure Exchange; business-driven regulations; low unemployment; electronics, oil, and chemicals exporter; continuing education investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$531.04 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$93,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

poultry, eggs, vegetables, pork, duck meat, spinach, pig offals, bird eggs, pig fat, cabbages

Industries

electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade

Exports

$599.2 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 15%, Hong Kong 13%, Malaysia 9%, United States 8%, Indonesia 7%, India 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, gold, gas turbines, packaged medicines (2019)

Imports

$490.68 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 16%, Malaysia 11%, United States 9%, Taiwan 7%, Japan 5%, Indonesia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, gold, gas turbines (2019)


Page last updated: Monday, May 23, 2022