Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



A Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The British founded modern Singapore as a trading colony on the site in 1819. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links.



total: 719 sq km
land: 709.2 sq km
water: 10 sq km


tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

People and Society


5,975,383 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.7%, Indian 8.9%, other 3.2% (2021 est.)


English (official) 48.3%, Mandarin (official) 29.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 8.7%, Malay (official) 9.2%, Tamil (official) 2.5%, other 1.4%; note - data represent language most frequently spoken at home (2020 est.)


Buddhist 31.1%, Christian 18.9%, Muslim 15.6%, Taoist 8.8%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 20% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.9% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Singapore

Executive branch

chief of state: President HALIMAH Yacob (since 14 September 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (104 seats statutory, 103 current term; 93 members directly elected by simple majority popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 12 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members increased to 12 for the 2020 election for the first time (2021)


Economic overview

high-income, service-based Southeast Asian economy; renowned for financial markets and Asian Infrastructure Exchange; business-driven regulations; low unemployment; electronics, oil, and chemicals exporter; continuing education investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$578.254 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$106,000 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

poultry, eggs, vegetables, pork, duck meat, spinach, pig offals, bird eggs, pig fat, cabbages


electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade


$733.782 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

China 15%, Hong Kong 13%, Malaysia 9%, United States 8%, Indonesia 7%, India 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, gold, gas turbines, packaged medicines (2019)


$609.28 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

China 16%, Malaysia 11%, United States 9%, Taiwan 7%, Japan 5%, Indonesia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, gold, gas turbines (2019)

Exchange rates

Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
1.343 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023