Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded control of the seas to England. A peaceful transition to democracy after the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975 and rapid economic modernization after Spain joined the EU in 1986 have given Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy. 



total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km


temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Natural resources

coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

People and Society


total: 47,280,433
male: 23,069,327
female: 24,211,106 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Spanish 84.8%, Moroccan 1.7%, Romanian 1.2%, other 12.3% (2021 est.)


Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in part of Catalonia) <5,000 speakers; note - Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


Roman Catholic 58.2%, atheist 16.2%, agnostic 10.8%, other 2.7%, non-believer 10.5%, unspecified 1.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.12% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Madrid

Executive branch

chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)
head of government: President of the Government of Spain (prime minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ PEREZ-CASTEJON (since 2 June 2018); Vice President Nadia Maria CALVINO Santamaria (since 12 July 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of:
Senate or Senado (265 seats; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 57 members indirectly elected by the legislatures of the autonomous communities; members serve 4-year terms)
Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a 3% threshold needed to gain a seat, and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)


Economic overview

high-income core EU and eurozone economy; strong growth driven by public consumption, tourism, and other service exports; tight labor market despite high structural unemployment; government debt remains high amid deficit reductions; innovation and economic freedom ranked lower than EU and OECD peers

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.922 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.817 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.708 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$40,200 (2022 est.)
$38,300 (2021 est.)
$36,100 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, grapes, pork, olives, tomatoes, maize, oranges, sugar beets (2022)


textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment


$578.039 billion (2022 est.)
$493.359 billion (2021 est.)
$393.87 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

France 17%, Germany 10%, Portugal 9%, Italy 8%, UK 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, garments, packaged medicine, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)


$561.49 billion (2022 est.)
$479.392 billion (2021 est.)
$375.378 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 11%, China 10%, France 10%, Italy 7%, US 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, garments, cars, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, June 17, 2024