Spain

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy, and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights.

Geography

Area

total: 505,370 sq km

land: 498,980 sq km

water: 6,390 sq km

Climate

temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

Natural resources

coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

People and Society

Population

47,163,418 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Spanish 84.8%, Moroccan 1.7%, Romanian 1.2%, other 12.3% (2021 est.)

Languages

Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan, <5,000 speakers); note - Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Religions

Roman Catholic 58.2%, atheist 16.2%, agnostic 10.8%, other 2.7%, non-believer 10.5%, unspecified 1.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.13% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Madrid

Executive branch

chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)

head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ PEREZ-CASTEJON (since 2 June 2018); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Maria del Carmen CALVO POYATO (since 7 June 2018)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of:
Senate or Senado (265 seats; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 57 members indirectly elected by the legislatures of the autonomous communities; members serve 4-year terms)
Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a 3% threshold needed to gain a seat, and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income core EU economy; diversified trade portfolio; continental tourism locale; high government spending and debt; prone to political financing corruption; negatively impacted by COVID-19; important port and customs infrastructure; key clothing/footwear supplier

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1,714,860,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$36,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

barley, milk, wheat, olives, grapes, tomatoes, pork, maize, oranges, sugar beet

Industries

textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Exports

$392.85 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

France 15%, Germany 11%, Portugal 8%, Italy 8%, United Kingdom 7%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, delivery trucks, clothing and apparel (2019)

Imports

$373.67 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 13%, France 11%, China 8%, Italy 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, natural gas, refined petroleum (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -


Page last updated: Thursday, August 25, 2022