Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-13th century. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil, including a military coup in 2006 and major street protests in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2014, and 2020.



total: 513,120 sq km
land: 510,890 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km


tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Natural resources

tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land

People and Society


total: 69,920,998
male: 34,065,311
female: 35,855,687 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Thai 97.5%, Burmese 1.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified <0.1% (2015 est.)


Thai (official) only 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages 2.9% (includes Malay, Burmese); note - data represent population by language(s) spoken at home; English is a secondary language of the elite (2010 est.)


Buddhist 92.5%, Muslim 5.4%, Christian 1.2%, other 0.9% (includes animist, Confucian, Hindu, Jewish, Sikh, and Taoist) (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.17% (2024 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Bangkok

Executive branch

chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON, also spelled Vajiralongkorn (since 1 December 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister SETTHA Thawisin (since 5 September 2023)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Ratthasapha consists of:
Senate or Wuthisapha (currently 250 seats; members appointed by the National Council for Peace and Order to serve 5-year terms; the Senate appointed in 2024 will consist of 200 members elected from various groups of professionals for a 5-year term)
House of Representatives or Saphaphuthan Ratsadon (500 seats; 400 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 100 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

upper middle-income Southeast Asian economy; substantial infrastructure; major electronics, food, and automobile parts exporter; globally used currency; extremely low unemployment, even amid COVID-19; ongoing Thailand 4.0 economic development

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.255 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.223 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.205 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$17,500 (2022 est.)
$17,100 (2021 est.)
$16,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, rice, cassava, oil palm fruit, maize, rubber, tropical fruits, chicken, pineapples, fruits (2022)


tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer


$324.063 billion (2022 est.)
$295.972 billion (2021 est.)
$257.981 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 17%, China 11%, Japan 8%, Vietnam 4%, Malaysia 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

machine parts, integrated circuits, cars, trucks, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)


$334.478 billion (2022 est.)
$296.115 billion (2021 est.)
$232.048 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 26%, Japan 11%, UAE 6%, US 5%, Malaysia 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, integrated circuits, gold, natural gas, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)

Exchange rates

baht per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
35.061 (2022 est.)
31.977 (2021 est.)
31.294 (2020 est.)
31.048 (2019 est.)
32.31 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, June 18, 2024