Trinidad and Tobago

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry employed contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962.

Geography

Area

total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Climate

tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

People and Society

Population

total: 1,408,966
male: 708,260
female: 700,706 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

East Indian 35.4%, African descent 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed - African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)

Languages

English (official), Trinidadian Creole English, Tobagonian Creole English, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Trinidadian Creole French, Spanish, Chinese

Religions

Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congregational 2.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.1% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Port of Spain

Executive branch

chief of state: President Christine KANGALOO (since 20 March 2023)
head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, and 6 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms;)
House of Representatives (42 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and the house speaker - usually designated from outside Parliament; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income Caribbean economy; major hydrocarbon exporter; key tourism and finance sectors; high inflation and growing public debt; long foreign currency access delays; large foreign reserves and sovereign wealth fund

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.667 billion (2022 est.)
$35.146 billion (2021 est.)
$35.514 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$23,300 (2022 est.)
$23,000 (2021 est.)
$23,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

chicken, fruits, coconuts, citrus fruits, plantains, maize, eggs, oranges, tomatoes, bananas (2022)

Industries

petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles

Exports

$17.584 billion (2022 est.)
$11.542 billion (2021 est.)
$6.44 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 35%, Belgium 6%, Morocco 5%, Spain 4%, Brazil 4% (2022)

Exports - commodities

ammonia, natural gas, crude petroleum, acyclic alcohols, fertilizers (2022)

Imports

$10.694 billion (2022 est.)
$8.636 billion (2021 est.)
$6.785 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

US 40%, China 9%, Italy 7%, Brazil 4%, Canada 3% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, iron ore, cars, plastic products, excavation machinery (2022)

Exchange rates

Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
6.754 (2022 est.)
6.759 (2021 est.)
6.751 (2020 est.)
6.754 (2019 est.)
6.771 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, June 18, 2024