Trinidad and Tobago

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was manned by contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962.



total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km


tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

People and Society


1,407,460 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

East Indian 35.4%, African descent 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed - African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)


English (official), Trinidadian Creole English, Tobagonian Creole English, Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Trinidadian Creole French, Spanish, Chinese


Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congregational 2.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.12% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Port of Spain

Executive branch

chief of state: President Christine KANGALOO (since 20 March 2023)
head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, and 6 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms;)
House of Representatives (42 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and the house speaker - usually designated from outside Parliament; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income Caribbean island economy; predominantly driven by oil and gas (80% of exports); growing Venezuelan relations threaten US support; growing tourism; key regional finance hub; rising drug-related crime; high public debt; systemic corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.147 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$23,000 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

poultry, fruit, coconuts, citrus fruit, milk, plantains, maize, oranges, eggs, gourds


petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles


$11.467 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 33%, Guyana 9%, Spain 6%, China 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, industrial alcohols, crude petroleum, ammonia, iron products, refined petroleum (2019)


$8.592 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 40%, Guyana 19%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, excavation machinery, shipping containers, iron, cars (2019)

Exchange rates

Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -
6.759 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, March 20, 2023