Country Summary



Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. The area was ruled in antiquity by various Persian empires, and was conquered by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols, Turkic warriors, and eventually the Russians. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic; it achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.



total: 488,100 sq km
land: 469,930 sq km
water: 18,170 sq km


subtropical desert

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt

People and Society


5,690,818 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003 est.)


Turkmen (official) 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%


Muslim 93%, Christian 6.4%, Buddhist <1%, folk religion <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, unspecified <1% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.95% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic; authoritarian


name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOV (since 19 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOV (since 19 March 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms); formerly the Assembly was the lower house of the bicameral National Council or Milli Genes, which consisted of an upper house, the People's Council or Halk Maslahaty, and the Assembly or Mejlis


Economic overview

upper middle-income Central Asian economy; has 10% of global natural gas reserves, exporting to Russia and China; natural resource rich; authoritarian and dominated by state-owned enterprises; major central-south Asian pipeline development

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$94.79 billion (2022 est.)
$93.205 billion (2021 est.)
$89.192 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,700 (2022 est.)
$14,700 (2021 est.)
$14,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, cotton, tomatoes, potatoes, watermelons, grapes, sugar beets, beef, rice


natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing


$7.458 billion (2017 est.)
$6.987 billion (2016 est.)

Exports - partners

China 82% (2019)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cotton fibers, fertilizers (2019)


$4.571 billion (2017 est.)
$5.215 billion (2016 est.)

Imports - partners

Turkey 25%, Russia 18%, China 14%, Germany 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

iron products, harvesting machinery, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, tractors (2019)

Exchange rates

Turkmenistani manat (TMM) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
4.125 (2017 est.)
3.5 (2016 est.)
3.5 (2015 est.)
3.5 (2014 est.)
2.85 (2013 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, April 09, 2024