Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



British influence in Uganda began in the 1860s with explorers seeking the source of the Nile. Uganda's British-created colonial boundaries grouped together many ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated efforts to establish a cohesive country after independence was achieved in 1962, and Uganda fell under authoritarian rule that led to economic ruin and mass atrocities.



total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km


tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Natural resources

copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

People and Society


total: 49,283,041
male: 24,040,560
female: 25,242,481 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)


English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic


Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

3.18% (2024 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Kampala

Executive branch

chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021)
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021); Prime Minister Robinah NABBANJA (since 21 June 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Rebecca KADAGA (since 24 June 2021); Second Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 21 June 2021); note - the prime minister is appointed by the president, with the approval of parliament, to coordinate the work of the cabinet and advise the president.    


Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (556 seats; 353 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 146 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 30 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5, older persons 5; 27 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

low-income, primarily agrarian East African economy; COVID-19 hurt economic growth and poverty reduction; lower oil prices threaten prior sector investments; endemic corruption; natural resource rich; high female labor force participation but undervalued

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$107.733 billion (2022 est.)
$103.007 billion (2021 est.)
$99.488 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,300 (2022 est.)
$2,200 (2021 est.)
$2,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

plantains, sugarcane, maize, cassava, milk, sweet potatoes, beans, vegetables, rice, coffee (2022)


sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production


$6.058 billion (2022 est.)
$6.174 billion (2021 est.)
$5.563 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

UAE 31%, India 12%, Hong Kong 9%, Kenya 8%, Italy 7% (2022)

Exports - commodities

gold, coffee, fish, milk, raw sugar (2022)


$11.145 billion (2022 est.)
$10.686 billion (2021 est.)
$10.209 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 23%, Kenya 15%, India 13%, UAE 7%, Tanzania 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

vaccines, packaged medicine, plastic products, cars, motorcycles and cycles (2022)

Exchange rates

Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
3,689.817 (2022 est.)
3,587.052 (2021 est.)
3,718.249 (2020 est.)
3,704.049 (2019 est.)
3,727.069 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, June 19, 2024