Uganda

Country Summary

Introduction

Background

British influence in Uganda began in the 1860s with explorers seeking the source of the Nile. The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962.

Geography

Area

total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km

Climate

tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Natural resources

copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold

People and Society

Population

47,729,952 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)

Languages

English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic

Religions

Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

3.22% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Kampala

Executive branch

chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021)
head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021); Prime Minister Robinah NABBANJA (since 21 June 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Rebecca KADAGA (since 24 June 2021); Second Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 21 June 2021); note - the prime minister is appointed by the president, with the approval of parliament, to coordinate the work of the cabinet and advise the president.    

 


Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (556 seats; 353 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 146 for women directly elected in single-seat districts by simple majority vote, and 30 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5, older persons 5; 27 ex officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

low-income, primarily agrarian East African economy; COVID-19 hurt economic growth and poverty reduction; lower oil prices threaten prior sector investments; endemic corruption; natural resource rich; high female labor force participation but undervalued

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$103.007 billion (2021 est.)
$99.488 billion (2020 est.)
$96.636 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,200 (2021 est.)
$2,200 (2020 est.)
$2,300 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, plantains, cassava, maize, sweet potatoes, milk, vegetables, beans, bananas, sorghum

Industries

sugar processing, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production

Exports

$6.177 billion (2021 est.)
$5.562 billion (2020 est.)
$6.172 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United Arab Emirates 58%, Kenya 9% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, coffee, milk, fish and fish products, tobacco (2019)

Imports

$10.705 billion (2021 est.)
$10.197 billion (2020 est.)
$9.795 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 19%, India 17%, Kenya 16%, United Arab Emirates 7%, Japan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

packaged medicines, aircraft, delivery trucks, cars, wheat (2019)

Exchange rates

Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
3,587.052 (2021 est.)
3,718.249 (2020 est.)
3,704.049 (2019 est.)
3,727.069 (2018 est.)
3,611.224 (2017 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, February 27, 2024