Country Summary



Ukraine was the center of Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive. The legacy of state control stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. Ukraine is fiercely resisting the 2022 Russian invasion, which has destroyed infrastructure and caused a humanitarian crisis.



total: 603,550 sq km
land: 579,330 sq km
water: 24,220 sq km


temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

Natural resources

iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land

People and Society


43,306,477 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)


Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Romanian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.); note - in February 2018, the Constitutional Court ruled that 2012 language legislation entitling a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of "regional language" - allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions - was unconstitutional, thus making the law invalid; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language


Orthodox (includes the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU), Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), and the Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish (2013 est.)

Population growth rate

2.33% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Kyiv (Kiev as the transliteration from Russian)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (since 20 May 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Denys SHMYHAL (since 4 March 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income non-EU Eastern European economy; key wheat, corn, and industrials exporter; emerging electronics producer; war-related massive labor shortages and displacement, as well as environmental destruction of agricultural areas; critical humanitarian and military aid recipient; large inflation and poverty increases; wartime data collection inconsistencies for Western areas

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$379.893 billion (2022 est.)
$535.579 billion (2021 est.)
$517.968 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$10,700 (2022 est.)
$12,900 (2021 est.)
$12,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sunflower seed, maize, wheat, rapeseed, barley, poultry meats, soybeans


industrial machinery, ferrous and nonferrous metals, automotive and aircraft components, electronics, chemicals, textiles, mining, construction


$56.909 billion (2022 est.)
$81.504 billion (2021 est.)
$60.707 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 12%, Poland 7%, Turkey 6%, Russia 5%, Italy 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

corn, sunflower seed oils, iron/iron products, wheat, insulated wiring, rapeseed (2021)


$83.863 billion (2022 est.)
$84.175 billion (2021 est.)
$63.085 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 14%, Russia 11%, Poland 9%, Germany 9%, Belarus 6% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, natural gas, packaged medicines, coal, broadcasting equipment (2021)

Exchange rates

hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
27.286 (2021 est.)
26.958 (2020 est.)
25.846 (2019 est.)
27.2 (2018 est.)
26.597 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, February 27, 2024