Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat, when the country was divided into North and South halves. Communist North Vietnam eventually conquered the anti-communist South in 1975 but then stagnated economically until 1986 before introducing a more market-based economy.



total: 331,210 sq km
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km


tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)

Natural resources

antimony, phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land

People and Society


104,799,174 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Kinh (Viet) 85.3%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.9%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.4%, Mong 1.4%, Nung 1.1%, other 5.5% (2019 est.)


Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)


Catholic 6.1%, Buddhist 5.8%, Protestant 1%, other 0.8%, none 86.3% (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

0.93% (2023 est.)


Government type

communist state


name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Vo Van THUONG (since March 2023)
head of government: Prime Minister Pham Minh CHINH (since 26 July 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi  (500 seats - number following 2021 election - 499; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income socialist East Asian economy; rapid economic growth since Đổi Mới reforms; strong investment and productivity growth; tourism and manufacturing hub; TPP signatory; declining poverty aside from ethnic minorities; systemic corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.036 trillion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$10,600 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, vegetables, sugar cane, cassava, maize, pork, fruit, bananas, coffee, coconuts


food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones


$339.984 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 23%, China 14%, Japan 8%, South Korea 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, telephones, integrated circuits, footwear, furniture (2019)


$338.021 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

China 35%, South Korea 18%, Japan 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, telephones, refined petroleum, textiles, semiconductors (2019)

Exchange rates

dong (VND) per US dollar -
23,159.783 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, March 02, 2023