Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



France began its conquest of Vietnam in 1858 and made the country part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam defeated French forces in 1954, when the country was divided into North and South halves. Communist North Vietnam conquered the anti-communist South in 1975 but then stagnated economically until 1986, when it introduced a more market-based economy.



total: 331,210 sq km
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km


tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)

Natural resources

antimony, phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower, arable land

People and Society


total: 105,758,975
male: 53,109,175
female: 52,649,800 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Kinh (Viet) 85.3%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.9%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.4%, Mong 1.4%, Nung 1.1%, other 5.5% (2019 est.)


Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)


Catholic 6.1%, Buddhist 5.8%, Protestant 1%, other 0.8%, none 86.3% (2019 est.)

Population growth rate

0.89% (2024 est.)


Government type

communist state


name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)

Executive branch

chief of state: President To LAM (since 22 May 2024)
head of government: Prime Minister Pham Minh CHINH (since 26 July 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats, 499 current; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

lower middle-income socialist East Asian economy; rapid economic growth since Đổi Mới reforms; strong investment and productivity growth; tourism and manufacturing hub; TPP signatory; declining poverty aside from ethnic minorities; systemic corruption

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.119 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.036 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.01 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,400 (2022 est.)
$10,600 (2021 est.)
$10,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, vegetables, sugarcane, cassava, maize, pork, fruits, bananas, coffee, coconuts (2022)


food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones


$384.204 billion (2022 est.)
$340.126 billion (2021 est.)
$290.229 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 29%, China 15%, South Korea 6%, Japan 6%, Hong Kong 3% (2022)

Exports - commodities

broadcasting equipment, garments, telephones, integrated circuits, machine parts (2022)


$371.111 billion (2022 est.)
$338.327 billion (2021 est.)
$269.808 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 38%, South Korea 17%, Japan 5%, Taiwan 4%, Thailand 4% (2022)

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, telephones, fabric (2022)

Exchange rates

dong (VND) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
23,271.213 (2022 est.)
23,159.783 (2021 est.)
23,208.368 (2020 est.)
23,050.242 (2019 est.)
22,602.05 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, June 20, 2024