Yemen

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The Kingdom of Yemen (colloquially known as North Yemen) became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and in 1962 became the Yemen Arab Republic. The British, withdrew in 1967 from what became the People's Republic of Southern Yemen (colloquially known as South Yemen). The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990.

Geography

Area

total: 527,968 sq km

land: 527,968 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Climate

mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

Natural resources

petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

People and Society

Population

30,984,689 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asian, European

Languages

Arabic (official); note - a distinct Socotri language is widely used on Socotra Island and Archipelago; Mahri is still fairly widely spoken in eastern Yemen

Religions

Muslim 99.1% (official; virtually all are citizens, an estimated 65% are Sunni and 35% are Shia), other 0.9% (includes Jewish, Baha'i, Hindu, and Christian; many are refugees or temporary foreign residents) (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.88% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

in transition

Capital

name: Sanaa

Executive branch

chief of state: on 7 April 2022, President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI announced the dismissal of Vice President ALI MUHSIN al-Ahmar and formation of the Presidential Leadership Council, an eight-member body chaired by former minister Rashad AL-ALIMI; the council will assume the responsibilities of the president and vice president and carry out the political, security, and military duties of the government

head of government: on 7 April 2022, President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI announced the dismissal of Vice President ALI MUHSIN al-Ahmar and the formation of a Presidential Leadership Council, an eight-member body chaired by former minister Rashad AL-ALIMI; the council will assume the responsibilities of the president and vice president and carry out the political, security, and military duties of the government

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis consists of:
Shura Council or Majlis Alshoora (111 seats; members appointed by the president; member tenure NA)
House of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwaab (301 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

low-income Middle Eastern economy; infrastructure, trade, and economic institutions devastated by civil war; oil/gas-dependent but decreasing reserves; massive poverty, food insecurity, and unemployment; high inflation

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$73.63 billion (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,500 (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

mangoes/guavas, potatoes, sorghum, onions, milk, poultry, watermelons, grapes, oranges, bananas

Industries

crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production

Exports

$384.5 million (2017 est.)

Exports - partners

China 53%, Saudi Arabia 10%, United Arab Emirates 7%, Australia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, gold, fish, industrial chemical liquids, scrap iron (2019)

Imports

$4.079 billion (2017 est.)

Imports - partners

China 25%, Turkey 10%, United Arab Emirates 9%, Saudi Arabia 8%, India 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

wheat, refined petroleum, iron, rice, cars (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022