This entry refers to specified gases and particulates released by various sources of animals, plants, goods, and processes that can contribute to global warming, poor air quality, pollution, and climate change.
particulate matter emissions - This entry provides the modeled annual mean concentration of particulate matter of less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) measured in micrograms per cubic meter of air. Exposure to PM2.5 pollutants should not exceed an annual mean concentration of 10 micrograms per cubic meter, according to World Health Organization guidelines. Particulate matter are inhalable and respirable particles composed of sulphate, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, black carbon, mineral dust, and water. Fine particles less than 2.5 microns pose the greatest health risks because they can penetrate the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Sources include combustion engines, solid-fuel combustion, and other industrial activities. Exposure to high concentrations of particulate matter is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, although even low concentrations of particulate matter can impact health. By reducing air pollution levels, countries can decrease the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma.
carbon dioxide emissions - This entry provides the annual quantity of carbon dioxide emissions for a country, as measured in megatons. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas emitted through human-influenced and natural processes. Human-influenced sources include the burning of fossil fuels (including coal, natural gas, and oil), solid waste, trees, and other biological materials, as well as certain chemical processes, such as cement production. Natural sources include decomposition, ocean release, and respiration. Carbon dioxide is a major contributor to climate warming, air quality, global warming, and pollution.
methane emissions - This entry provides the annual quantity of methane emissions for a country, as measured in megatons. Methane is a greenhouse gas emitted from the breakdown of organic material from human-influenced and natural processes. Human-influenced sources include the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil; the decay of organic waste in landfills; agricultural activities; stationary and mobile combustion; waste water treatment; and certain industrial processes. Natural sources include the decay of plant material in wetlands, the seepage of gas from underground deposits, and the digestion of food by ruminants. Methane emissions cause poor air quality, health issues for animals and humans, and reduced crop yields, and are a contributor to climate change.