This entry refers to specified gases and particulates released by various sources of animals, plants, goods, and processes that can contribute to global warming, poor air quality, pollution, and climate change.
particulate matter emissions - This entry provides the modeled annual mean concentration of particulate matter of less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) measured in micrograms per cubic meter of air. Exposure to PM2.5 pollutants should not exceed an annual mean concentration of 10 micrograms per cubic meter, according to World Health Organization guidelines. Particulate matter are inhalable and respirable particles composed of sulphate, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, black carbon, mineral dust, and water. Fine particles less than 2.5 microns pose the greatest health risks because they can penetrate the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Sources include combustion engines, solid-fuel combustion, and other industrial activities. Exposure to high concentrations of particulate matter is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, although even low concentrations of particulate matter can impact health. By reducing air pollution levels, countries can decrease the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma.
carbon dioxide emissions - This entry provides the annual quantity of carbon dioxide emissions for a country, as measured in megatons. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas emitted through human-influenced and natural processes. Human-influenced sources include the burning of fossil fuels (including coal, natural gas, and oil), solid waste, trees, and other biological materials, as well as certain chemical processes, such as cement production. Natural sources include decomposition, ocean release, and respiration. Carbon dioxide is a major contributor to climate warming, air quality, global warming, and pollution.
methane emissions - This entry provides the annual quantity of methane emissions for a country, as measured in megatons. Methane is a greenhouse gas emitted from the breakdown of organic material from human-influenced and natural processes. Human-influenced sources include the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil; the decay of organic waste in landfills; agricultural activities; stationary and mobile combustion; waste water treatment; and certain industrial processes. Natural sources include the decay of plant material in wetlands, the seepage of gas from underground deposits, and the digestion of food by ruminants. Methane emissions cause poor air quality, health issues for animals and humans, and reduced crop yields, and are a contributor to climate change.
Airports - with paved runways
civil airports - active civil airfields controlled and operated by civil authorities primarily for use by civil aircraft, although the military may have landing privileges and/or contract rights. At a minimum, the following facilities and services must be available: Control tower or a similar air traffic control service, permanent hard surface runways, permanent or temporary lighting, fuel, and facilities for organizational maintenance or better.
military airports - active military airfields controlled and operated by military authorities primarily for use by military aircraft, although civil aircraft may have landing privileges and/or contracts rights. Minimum facilities and services are the same as for active civil airfields.
joint use airports - active joint (Civil and Military) airfields jointly controlled, used and/or operated by both civil and military agencies. The military agencies must be permanent, operational, flight line tenants with or without aircraft stationed on the airfield. Minimum facilities and services are the same as for active civil airfields.
other airports – active airports that do not meet the criteria for civil airports; most commonly the lack of a control tower for local air traffic control.
Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing.
Airports - with unpaved runways
This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) that are most suited to the operation of light aircraft. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Air facilities with unpaved runways are usually fairly austere, lacking a control tower for traffic control, often there is no fixed base operator (FBO), and services like fuel and maintenance are limited or non-existent. The type of aircraft capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine types, flap settings, take-off weight of the aircraft, and landing speeds. The US Federal Aviation Administration states that smaller aircraft with approach speeds of 30-50 knots should use 244 m (800 ft.) at mean sea level. A note provides a succinct definition of what constitutes an unpaved runway and the factors that go into determining runway length.
Alcohol consumption per capita
This entry provides information on alcohol consumption per capita (APC), which is the recorded amount of alcohol consumed per capita by persons aged 15 years and over in a calendar year, measured in liters of pure alcohol. APC is broken down further into beer, wine, spirits, and other subfields. Beer includes malt beers, wine includes wine made from grapes, spirits include all distilled beverages, and other includes one or several other alcoholic beverages, such as fermented beverages made from sorghum, maize, millet, rice, or cider, fruit wine, and fortified wine. APC only takes into account the consumption that is recorded from production, import, export, and sales data, primarily derived from taxation.