Since 1987, the Central Intelligence Agency has funded a program with the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, on Intelligence and Policy. Under this program, which is managed by CIA ‘s Center for the Study of Intelligence, the Kennedy School conducts seminars and develops case studies that help to illuminate issues related to the use of intelligence by policymakers. This article is an abridged version of a case written in 1988 at the Kennedy School.
When the Reagan administration committed US Marines to Beirut International Airport in September 1982, it had the very highest of hopes. . . .