Intelligence Studies

Volume 65, No. 3 (September 2021-Special Issue)

Unclassified extracts from Studies in Intelligence 65, no. 3 (Special Issue, September 2021)


On September 11, 2001, the United States suffered the worst terrorist attack on its people and territory in its history. Those of us capable of watching the tragic scenes at the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and Shanksville, PA, that day will always remember where we were that fateful morning. Since that day, we in the Intelligence Community have seen momentous change in our organizations and work.

In the early days of the war on terror that followed, our military and intelligence special operators moved silently and quickly in Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban and send Usama bin Laden into hiding. Since then, we have learned how to better integrate our diverse intelligence organizations and cultures to conduct such operations and deepen our analysis to more effectively campaign against al-Qa‘ida and other terrorist adversaries. Also importantly, these changes have promoted intelligence sharing with partners abroad. The changes have been unprecedented in our history. This special edition of Studies in Intelligence will outline many of those changes and improvements in the IC over the past 20 years.

We, the members of the Editorial Board of Studies in Intelligence, dedicate this work to those who gave their lives on that fateful day, and to those since then, in US military uniform, in intelligence operations, and as Allied and Afghan partners in the war against terror. They were our countrymen, teammates, family, and friends. They are memorialized at the World Trade Center site, the Pentagon, in Shanksville, and in countless other towns and cities across the United States and abroad.

We will never forget their courage and sacrifice.

—The Editorial Board of Studies in Intelligence

A memorial bench at the Pentagon 9/11 memorial dedicated to Lt. Jonas M. Panik, USNR. Lt. Panik, a Naval Intelligence Officer serving in the Intelligence Plot (center) of the headquarters of the Chief of Naval Operations. Lt. Panik was among a number of Naval intelligence colleagues who died that day. In addition, seven members of the Defense Intelligence Agency were killed.

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Graham Alexander is the penname of a CIA Directorate of Operations officer serving in the Center for the Study of Intelligence.

Robert Cardillo was deputy director of the Defense Intelligence Agency and deputy director for DIA analysis (since 2006) when the article appearing here was written. He would become the first deputy DNI for Intelligence Integration under DNI James Clapper in 2010. In 2014 he became director of NGA, serving until 2019, when he retired from federal service.

Peter Clement has served as a CIA analyst and senior manager. He now serves as senior research scholar and adjunct professor at the Salzman Institute of War and Peace Studies in the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University.

Jim Clapper was DNI from 2010 until 2017.

Leslie C. is a CIA Directorate of Operations officer.

Joseph Gartin recently became the managing editor of Studies in Intelligence. He retired from CIA as its chief learning officer.

Gary Keeley is a member of CIA’s History Staff.

J.E. Leonardson is the penname of a CIA Directorate of Analysis officer.

Jon Rosenwasser is the budget and policy director for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, where he has served since 2013. He also oversees the ODNI. Rosenwasser previously served in the ODNI, NIC, and the Center for the Study of Intelligence.

J.R. Seeger is a retired CIA paramilitary officer.

Stephen B. Slick is a retired senior CIA officer. He is now director of the Intelligence Studies Project within the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas, Austin.

Barry Zulauf was the IC ombudsperson for analytic objectivity during 2018–2021. He recently joined Harvard University’s Belfer Center as a Recanati-Kaplan intelligence fellow.