Country Summary



Site of multiple kingdoms, the most prominent being the Kongo and Ndongo. These kingdoms came in contact with the Portuguese beginning in 1482 and were eventually subjugated over several hundred years as Portugal established a colony. Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975. A 27-year civil war ended in 2002.



total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km


semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Natural resources

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

People and Society


35,981,281 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%


Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%; note - data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)


Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

3.34% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Luanda

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Esperanca Francisco DA COSTA (since 15 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Esperanca Francisco DA COSTA (since 15 September 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

African oil leader and OPEC member; fairly stable currency; widespread poverty; emerging African finance and investment capital; systemic public corruption and lack of oversight; massive foreign direct investment recipient

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$203.868 billion (2021 est.)
$201.65 billion (2020 est.)
$213.612 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$5,900 (2021 est.)
$6,000 (2020 est.)
$6,600 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, bananas, maize, sweet potatoes, pineapples, sugar cane, potatoes, citrus fruit, vegetables, cabbage


petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair


$33.675 billion (2021 est.)
$21.004 billion (2020 est.)
$35.18 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

China 62%, India 10%, United Arab Emirates 4%, Portugal 3%, Spain 3% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, refined petroleum, asphalt mixtures (2021)


$18.845 billion (2021 est.)
$15.146 billion (2020 est.)
$22.299 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 22%, Portugal 15%, Nigeria 6%, Belgium 6%, United States 5%, South Africa 5%, Brazil 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, scrap vessels, meat, rice, palm oil (2019)

Exchange rates

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
631.442 (2021 est.)
578.259 (2020 est.)
364.826 (2019 est.)
252.856 (2018 est.)
165.916 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 21, 2024