Photos of Angola

Introduction

Background

Bantu-speaking people settled in the area now called Angola in 6th century A.D.; by the 10th century various Bantu groups had established kingdoms, of which Kongo became the most powerful. From the late-14th to the mid-19th century, a Kingdom of Kongo stretched across central Africa from present-day northern Angola into the current Congo republics. It traded heavily with the Portuguese who, beginning in the 16th century, established coastal colonies and trading posts and introduced Christianity. Angola became a major hub of the transatlantic slave trade conducted by the Portuguese and other European powers -- often in collaboration with local kingdoms, including the Kongo. The Angola area is estimated to have lost as many as 4 million people as a result of the slave trade. The Kingdom of Kongo’s main rival was the Kingdom of Ndongo to its south, whose most famous leader was Nzingha Mbande, the 17th century diplomat to the Portuguese and later Queen, who successfully fought off Portuguese encroachment during her nearly 40-year reign. Smaller kingdoms, such as the Matamba and Ngoyo, often came under the control of the Kongo or Ndongo Kingdoms. During the Berlin Conference of 1884-85, Portugal and other European powers set Angola’s modern borders, but the Portuguese did not fully control large portions of the territory. Portugal gained control of the Kingdom of Kongo in 1888 when Kongo’s King Pedro V sought Portuguese military assistance in exchange for becoming a vassal. After a revolt in 1914, Portugal imposed direct rule over the colony and abolished the Kongo Kingdom.

The Angolan National Revolution began in 1961, and in 1975, Angola won its independence when Portugal’s dictatorship fell, a collapse that occurred in part because of growing discontent over conflict in Angola and other colonies. Angola’s multiple independence movements soon clashed, with the Popular Movement for Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Agostinho NETO, taking power and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, emerging as its main competitor. After NETO’s death in 1979, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, also of the MPLA, became president. Over time, the Angolan civil war escalated and became a major Cold War conflict, with the Soviet Union and Cuba supporting the MPLA and the US and South Africa supporting UNITA. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost -- and 4 million people displaced -- during the more than a quarter-century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS did not seek reelection in 2017 and supported Joao LOURENCO’s successful bid to become president. LOURENCO was reelected in 2022. Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since 2002. 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

12 30 S, 18 30 E

Area

total: 1,246,700 sq km

land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 24

Area - comparative

about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 5,369 km

border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province); Republic of the Congo 231 km; Namibia 1,427 km; Zambia 1,065 km

Coastline

1,600 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain

narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation

highest point: Moca 2,620 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 1,112 m

Natural resources

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use

agricultural land: 45.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 54.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

860 sq km (2014)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Rio Zambeze (Zambezi) (shared with Zambia [s], Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Rio Cubango (Okavango) river source (shared with Namibia and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 sq km)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Okavango Basin (863,866 sq km)

Major aquifers

Congo Basin, Upper Kalahari-Cuvelai-Upper Zambezi Basin

Population distribution

most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly the capital of Luanda as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Geography - note

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People and Society

Population

35,981,281 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Nationality

noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Languages

Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%; note - data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

More than two decades after the end of Angola's 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country's rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, about 30 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population - about 48% are under the age of 15 as of 2022 - is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more than 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola's high maternal mortality rate.

Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.

Age structure

0-14 years: 47.18% (male 8,503,242/female 8,473,889)

15-64 years: 50.49% (male 8,730,015/female 9,435,581)

65 years and over: 2.33% (2023 est.) (male 350,059/female 488,495)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 91.5

youth dependency ratio: 86.5

elderly dependency ratio: 5

potential support ratio: 20.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 16.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 15.7 years

female: 16.7 years

comparison ranking: total 225

Population growth rate

3.34% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 6

Birth rate

41.4 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 2

Death rate

7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 97

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 107

Population distribution

most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly the capital of Luanda as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 68.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 4.04% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

9.292 million LUANDA (capital), 959,000 Lubango, 905,000 Cabinda, 809,000 Benguela, 783,000 Malanje  (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.4 years (2015/16 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

222 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 41

Infant mortality rate

total: 57.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 62.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 51.9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 12

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 62.5 years (2023 est.)

male: 60.4 years

female: 64.7 years

comparison ranking: total population 214

Total fertility rate

5.76 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 2

Gross reproduction rate

2.84 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 81.3% of population

rural: 36.5% of population

total: 66.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.7% of population

rural: 63.5% of population

total: 33.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

2.9% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 93.7% of population

rural: 30.3% of population

total: 72.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 6.3% of population

rural: 69.7% of population

total: 27.3% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.2% (2016)

comparison ranking: 154

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 5.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.27 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 73

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

19% (2015/16)

comparison ranking: 20

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 7.9%

women married by age 18: 30.3%

men married by age 18: 6% (2016 est.)

Education expenditures

2.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.1%

male: 82.6%

female: 62.4% (2015)

Environment

Environment - current issues

overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Land use

agricultural land: 45.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 54.3% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 68.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 4.04% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.36% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 75

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 75

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 27.16 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 34.69 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 23.28 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4,213,644 tons (2012 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Rio Zambeze (Zambezi) (shared with Zambia [s], Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Rio Cubango (Okavango) river source (shared with Namibia and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 sq km)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Okavango Basin (863,866 sq km)

Major aquifers

Congo Basin, Upper Kalahari-Cuvelai-Upper Zambezi Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 320 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 240 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 150 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

148.4 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola

etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now Angola)

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Luanda

geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

etymology: originally named "Sao Paulo da Assuncao de Loanda" (Saint Paul of the Assumption of Loanda), which over time was shortened and corrupted to just Luanda

 

Administrative divisions

18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza-Norte, Cuanza-Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda-Norte, Lunda-Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence

11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution

history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic

Legal system

civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Esperanca Francisco DA COSTA (since 15 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Esperanca Francisco DA COSTA (since 15 September 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 24 August 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by then winning party following the 24 August 2022 general election

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 24 August 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:
percent of vote by party - MPLA 51.1%, UNITA 43.9%, FNLA 1.1%, PHA 1%, PRS 1.1%, other 1.7%; seats by party - MPLA 124, UNITA 90, FNLA 2, PHA 2, PRS 2; composition as of January 2024 - men 135, women 85, percentage women 38.6%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms

subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Manuel FERNANDES]
Humanist Party of Angola or PHI [Florbela MALAQUIAS]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Adalberto Costa JUNIOR] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Joao LOURENCO]; note- ruling party in power since 1975
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, Union Latina, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho de Carvalho dos Santos VAN-DÚNEM (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156

FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049

email address and website:
info@angola.org

https://angola.org/

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since 9 March 2022)

embassy: Rua Houari Boumedienne, #32, Luanda

mailing address: 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550

telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000

FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000

email address and website:
Consularluanda@state.gov

https://ao.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty and black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants

National symbol(s)

Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow

National anthem

name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)

lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Mbanza-Kongo

Economy

Economic overview

African oil leader and OPEC member; fairly stable currency; widespread poverty; emerging African finance and investment capital; systemic public corruption and lack of oversight; massive foreign direct investment recipient

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$210.193 billion (2022 est.)
$203.981 billion (2021 est.)
$201.563 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 68

Real GDP growth rate

3.05% (2022 est.)
1.2% (2021 est.)
-5.64% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 134

Real GDP per capita

$5,900 (2022 est.)
$5,900 (2021 est.)
$6,000 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 162

GDP (official exchange rate)

$106.783 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

25.75% (2021 est.)
22.27% (2020 est.)
17.08% (2019 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 206

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: CCC (2020)

Moody's rating: Caa1 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: CCC+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.2% (2011 est.)

industry: 61.4% (2011 est.)

services: 28.4% (2011 est.)

comparison rankings: services 225; industry 1; agriculture 89

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 10.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 25.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, bananas, maize, sweet potatoes, pineapples, sugar cane, potatoes, citrus fruit, vegetables, cabbage

Industries

petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate

1.77% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 133

Labor force

14.746 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 41

Unemployment rate

14.48% (2022 est.)
15.8% (2021 est.)
16.7% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 192

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.5% (2021 est.)

male: 18.2%

female: 18.8%

comparison ranking: total 91

Population below poverty line

32.3% (2018 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

51.3 (2018 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 9

Average household expenditures

on food: 48.6% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 1.5% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.3%

highest 10%: 39.6% (2018 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.01% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.02% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.02% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $17.899 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $17.244 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 189

Public debt

65% of GDP (2017 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Taxes and other revenues

10.09% (of GDP) (2019 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 186

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$11.763 billion (2022 est.)
$8.399 billion (2021 est.)
$871.918 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 26

Exports

$50.12 billion (2022 est.)
$33.675 billion (2021 est.)
$21.004 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 68

Exports - partners

China 62%, India 10%, United Arab Emirates 4%, Portugal 3%, Spain 3% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, refined petroleum, asphalt mixtures (2021)

Imports

$28.564 billion (2022 est.)
$18.845 billion (2021 est.)
$15.146 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 82

Imports - partners

China 22%, Portugal 15%, Nigeria 6%, Belgium 6%, United States 5%, South Africa 5%, Brazil 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, scrap vessels, meat, rice, palm oil (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$13.655 billion (2022 est.)
$14.468 billion (2021 est.)
$13.782 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 68

Debt - external

$42.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 74

Exchange rates

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
460.568 (2022 est.)
631.442 (2021 est.)
578.259 (2020 est.)
364.826 (2019 est.)
252.856 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 18 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 48.2% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 74.9% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 7.3% (2018)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 7.344 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 11.815 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.741 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 76; transmission/distribution losses 122; imports 141; exports 124; consumption 93

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 28.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 70.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 1,197,600 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 133,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,367,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 7.783 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

53,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 80

Refined petroleum products - exports

30,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 62

Refined petroleum products - imports

111,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 50

Natural gas

production: 6,767,715,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 860.887 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 5,877,945,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 343.001 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

19.362 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 17.673 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.689 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 84

Energy consumption per capita

11.693 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 147

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 93,968 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 136

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 15,327,864 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 44 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 70

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Angola’s telecom sector in recent years has benefited from political stability, which has encouraged foreign investment in the sector; the government and regulator have also set in train mechanisms to open up the telecom sector to new competitors, mobile services were launched in April 2022; the MNOs were slow to develop LTE services, instead relying on their GSM and 3G network capabilities; there has been slow progress in LTE network development, with only a small proportion of the country covered by network infrastructure; the Ministry of Telecommunications in early 2021 set up a 5G hub to assess 5G user cases; the regulator in November 2021 granted licenses to various companies offering 5G services, with spectrum in the 3.3-3.7GHz range having been set aside for such services (2022)

domestic: less than one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 44 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 244; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, WACS, ACE and SACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to other countries in west Africa, Brazil, Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29, Angosat-2 satellite expected by 2021 (2019)

Broadcast media

state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 26 stations; approximately20 private radio stations broadcast locally

Internet users

total: 11.55 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 33% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 56

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 230,610 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.7 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 116

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,516,628 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 78.16 million (2018) mt-km

Airports

106 (2024)

comparison ranking: 51

Heliports

2 (2024)

Pipelines

352 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1,065 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water (2013)

Railways

total: 2,761 km (2022)

narrow gauge: 2,638 km (2022) 1.067-m gauge

123 km 0.600-mm gauge

comparison ranking: total 60

Roadways

total: 76,000 km

paved: 13,680 km (2020)

comparison ranking: total 67

Waterways

1,300 km (2011)

comparison ranking: 57

Merchant marine

total: 64 (2023)

by type: general cargo 13, oil tanker 8, other 43

comparison ranking: total 112

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army)

Ministry of Interior: National Police, Border Guard Police (2023)

Military expenditures

1.3% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.4% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.7% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 100

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 100,000 active troops (mostly Army; 5-6,000 Air Force and Navy); estimated 10,000 Rapid Reaction Police (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

most Angolan military weapons and equipment are of Russian or of Soviet-era origin; in recent years, Russia has been the principal supplier of military hardware to Angola (2023)

Military service age and obligation

20-45 years of age for compulsory and 18-45 years for voluntary military service for men (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary service for women; 24-month conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy is entirely staffed with volunteers (2023)

Military deployments

in 2023, Angola agreed to send 500 troops to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) for 12 months to oversee cantonment of a rebel group known as M23 (2023)

Military - note

the Angolan Armed Forces were created in 1991 under the Bicesse Accords signed between the Angolan Government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA); the current force is responsible for country’s external defense but also has some domestic security responsibilities, including border protection, expulsion of irregular migrants, and small-scale counterinsurgency operations against groups like the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda separatists in Cabinda; the Army and Air Force are some of the largest and better equipped forces in the region; a significant portion of the Army's core combat forces--six infantry divisions--are motorized and supported by approximately 300 Soviet-era tanks, while the Air Force has a fleet of approximately 100 combat aircraft, plus a substantial inventory of transport aircraft and helicopter gunships; while naval modernization has received more attention in recent years, the Navy remains a small force of fast attack and coastal patrol craft (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

National Space Program Office (Gabinete de Gestão do Programa Espacial Nacional, GGPEN; established 2013) (2023)

Space program overview

has a national space strategy with a focus on capacity building, developing space infrastructure, investing in domestic space sector, supporting socioeconomic growth, and establishing cooperation agreements with foreign technical and scientific institutions in the space industry; contracts with foreign companies to build and launch satellites; operates satellites; cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and industries, including those of France and Russia (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Angola-Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): has had disputes over land and maritime borders with the DRC; maritime disputes have largely been about offshore oil claims

Angola-Namibia: none identified

Angola-Republic of Congo: (Kabinda Exclave) none identified

Angola-Zambia: because the straight-line segments along the left bank (Zambian side) of the Cuando/Kwando River do not conform with the physical alignment of the unstable shoreline, Zambian residents in some areas have settled illegally on sections of shoreline that fall on the Angolan side of the boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,272 (Guinea), 6,357 (Cote d'Ivoire), 5,725 (Mauritania) (2023); 22,841 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2024)

Illicit drugs

used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa