Cabo Ledo (Cape Ledo), some 90 km south of Luanda, frames a wide bay in the South Atlantic. The bay is renowned for its stunning cliffs that outline the long beach and the warm water. The area is popular for its many outdoor activities such as hiking, surfing, swimming, or fishing, as well as for its historical heritage.
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Introduction

Background

From the late 14th to the mid 19th century a Kingdom of Kongo stretched across central Africa from present-day northern Angola into the current Congo republics. It traded heavily with the Portuguese who, beginning in the 16th century, established coastal colonies and trading posts and introduced Christianity. By the 19th century, Portuguese settlement had spread to the interior; in 1914, Portugal abolished the last vestiges of the Kongo Kingdom and Angola became a Portuguese colony.

Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS stepped down from the presidency in 2017, having led the country since 1979. He pushed through a new constitution in 2010. Joao LOURENCO was elected president in August 2017 and became president of the MPLA in September 2018.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

12 30 S, 18 30 E

Area

total: 1,246,700 sq km

land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 24

Area - comparative

about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 5,369 km

border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province); Republic of the Congo 231 km; Namibia 1,427 km; Zambia 1,065 km

Coastline

1,600 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain

narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation

highest point: Moca 2,620 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 1,112 m

Natural resources

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use

agricultural land: 45.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 54.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

860 sq km (2014)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s], Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Okavango river source (shared with Namibia and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 sq km)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Okavango Basin (863,866 sq km)

Major aquifers

Congo Basin, Upper Kalahari-Cuvelai-Upper Zambezi Basin

Population distribution

most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly the capital of Luanda as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Geography - note

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Languages

Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%; note - data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

More than two decades after the end of Angola's 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country's rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, about 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population - about 45% are under the age of 15 - is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more than 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola's high maternal mortality rate.

Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries.

Age structure

0-14 years: 47.83% (male 7,758,636/female 7,797,869)

15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,950,999/female 3,109,741)

25-54 years: 27.8% (male 4,301,618/female 4,740,463)

55-64 years: 3.43% (male 523,517/female 591,249)

65 years and over: 2.3% (male 312,197/female 436,050) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 94.5

youth dependency ratio: 90.2

elderly dependency ratio: 4.3

potential support ratio: 23.5 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 15.9 years

male: 15.4 years

female: 16.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 225

Birth rate

41.8 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 2

Death rate

8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

Net migration rate

-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Population distribution

most people live in the western half of the country; urban areas account for the highest concentrations of people, particularly the capital of Luanda as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 68.1% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 4.04% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

8.952 million LUANDA (capital), 914,000 Lubango, 862,000 Cabinda, Benguela 777,000 (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.4 years (2015/16 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 20-49

Maternal mortality ratio

241 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Infant mortality rate

total: 58.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 64.11 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 53.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 12

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 62.11 years

male: 60.05 years

female: 64.24 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 214

Total fertility rate

5.83 children born/woman (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 2

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 81.3% of population

rural: 36.5% of population

total: 66.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.7% of population

rural: 63.5% of population

total: 33.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

2.5% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 93.7% of population

rural: 30.3% of population

total: 72.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 6.3% of population

rural: 69.7% of population

total: 27.3% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 5.84 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.78 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.27 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 7.9%

women married by age 18: 30.3%

men married by age 18: 6% (2016 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 71.1%

male: 82%

female: 60.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years

male: 12 years

female: 7 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17.3%

male: 17.9%

female: 16.7% (2014 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 27.95 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 34.69 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 23.28 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Land use

agricultural land: 45.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 3.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 41.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 54.3% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 68.1% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 4.04% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 4,213,644 tons (2012 est.)

Major rivers (by length in km)

Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s], Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Okavango river source (shared with Namibia and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: Congo (3,730,881 sq km)
Indian Ocean drainage: Zambezi (1,332,412 sq km)
Internal (endorheic basin) drainage: Okavango Basin (863,866 sq km)

Major aquifers

Congo Basin, Upper Kalahari-Cuvelai-Upper Zambezi Basin

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 319.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 239.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 146.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

148.4 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola

etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Luanda

geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

etymology: originally named "Sao Paulo da Assuncao de Loanda" (Saint Paul of the Assumption of Loanda), which over time was shortened and corrupted to just Luanda

 

Administrative divisions

18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza-Norte, Cuanza-Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda-Norte, Lunda-Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence

11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution

history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic

Legal system

civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 15 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 15 September 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 24 August 2022 (next to be held on 24 August 2027) (2022)

election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by then winning party following the 24 August 2022 general election

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 24 August 2022 (next to be held on 24 August 2027)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 51.1%, UNITA 43.9%, PRS 1.1%, FNLA 1.1%, PHA 1%, other 1.7%; seats by party - MPLA 124, UNITA 90, PRS 2, FNLA 2; PHA-2; composition - men 146, women 74, percent of women 33.6%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms

subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Manuel FERNANDES]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Adalberto Costa JUNIOR] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Joao LOURENCO]; note- ruling party in power since 1975
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Joaquim do Espirito SANTO (since 16 September 2019)

chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156

FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049

email address and website:
info@angola.org

https://angola.org/

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI, (since 9 March 2022)

embassy: Rua Houari Boumedienne, #32, Luanda

mailing address: 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550

telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000

FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000

email address and website:
Consularluanda@state.gov

https://ao.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty and black the African continent; the symbols characterize workers and peasants

National symbol(s)

Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow

National anthem

name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)

lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Mbanza-Kongo

Economy

Economic overview

Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports; Angola is an OPEC member and subject to its direction regarding oil production levels. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

 

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war (1975-2002). However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

 

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued billions in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Lower prices for oil and diamonds also resulted in GDP falling 0.7% in 2016. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009 but reinstituted it in April 2016 and maintains an overvalued exchange rate. In late 2016, Angola lost the last of its correspondent relationships with foreign banks, further exacerbating hard currency problems. Since 2013 the central bank has consistently spent down reserves to defend the kwanza, gradually allowing a 40% depreciation since late 2014. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again to above 30% from 2015-2017.

 

Continued low oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects, although several major international oil companies remain in Angola. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$203.71 billion (2020 est.)

$212.29 billion (2019 est.)

$213.62 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 67

Real GDP growth rate

-2.5% (2017 est.)

-2.6% (2016 est.)

0.9% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 208

Real GDP per capita

$6,200 (2020 est.)

$6,700 (2019 est.)

$6,900 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 161

GDP (official exchange rate)

$97.261 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

17.2% (2019 est.)

20.3% (2018 est.)

32.1% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 217

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: CCC (2020)

Moody's rating: Caa1 (2020)

Standard & Poors rating: CCC+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.2% (2011 est.)

industry: 61.4% (2011 est.)

services: 28.4% (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 10.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.2% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 25.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, bananas, maize, sweet potatoes, pineapples, sugar cane, potatoes, citrus fruit, vegetables, cabbage

Industries

petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%

industry: 15% (2015 est.)

industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17.3%

male: 17.9%

female: 16.7% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.6%

highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)

Budget

revenues: 37.02 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 45.44 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

65% of GDP (2017 est.)

75.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.254 billion (2017 est.)

-$4.834 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Exports

$21 billion (2020 est.)

$35.18 billion (2019 est.)

$41.39 billion (2018 est.)

note: Data are in current year dollars and do not include illicit exports or re-exports.

country comparison to the world: 80

Exports - partners

China 62%, India 10%, United Arab Emirates 4%, Portugal 3%, Spain 3% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, diamonds, natural gas, refined petroleum, ships (2019)

Imports

$15.12 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$22.3 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$25.89 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 96

Imports - partners

China 22%, Portugal 15%, Nigeria 6%, Belgium 6%, United States 5%, South Africa 5%, Brazil 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, scrap vessels, meat, rice, palm oil (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$17.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Debt - external

$42.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Exchange rates

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -

172.6 (2017 est.)

163.656 (2016 est.)

163.656 (2015 est.)

120.061 (2014 est.)

98.303 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 43% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 61% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 6% (2019)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 7.344 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 11.815 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.741 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 28.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 70.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 1,197,600 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 133,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 1,367,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 7.783 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 6,767,715,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 860.887 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 5,877,945,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 343.001 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

19.362 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 17.673 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 1.689 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 119,164 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2020 est.) less than 1

country comparison to the world: 132

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 14,645,050 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Angola’s telecom sector in recent years has benefited from political stability, which has encouraged foreign investment in the sector; the government and regulator have also set in train mechanisms to open up the telecom sector to new competitors, mobile services were launched in April 2022; the MNOs were slow to develop LTE services, instead relying on their GSM and 3G network capabilities; there has been slow progress in LTE network development, with only a small proportion of the country covered by network infrastructure; the Ministry of Telecommunications in early 2021 set up a 5G hub to assess 5G user cases; the regulator in November 2021 granted licenses to various companies offering 5G services, with spectrum in the 3.3-3.7GHz range having been set aside for such services (2022)

domestic: only about one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 45 telephones per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 244; landing points for the SAT-3/WASC, WACS, ACE and SACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to other countries in west Africa, Brazil, Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29, Angosat-2 satellite expected by 2021 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally

Internet users

total: 11,831,857 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 36% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 230,610 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.7 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,516,628 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 78.16 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 32

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 70

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 27

under 914 m: 22 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

352 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1,065 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water (2013)

Railways

total: 2,852 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 2,729 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge

123 km 0.600-mm gauge

country comparison to the world: 63

Roadways

total: 26,000 km (2018)

paved: 13,600 km (2018)

unpaved: 12,400 km (2018)

country comparison to the world: 102

Merchant marine

total: 54

by type: general cargo 13, oil tanker 8, other 33 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 117

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army); Rapid Reaction Police (paramilitary) (2022)

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.7% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.8% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $2.7 billion)

2.1% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $3.02 billion)

2.6% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $3.65 billion)

country comparison to the world: 95

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 101,000 active troops (95,000 Army; 1,000 Navy; 5,000 Air Force); estimated 10,000 Rapid Reaction Police (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

most Angolan military weapons and equipment are of Russian, Soviet, or Warsaw Pact origin; since 2010, Russia has been the principal supplier of military hardware to Angola (2021)

Military service age and obligation

20-45 years of age for compulsory and 18-45 years for voluntary military service for men (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary service for women; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy is entirely staffed with volunteers (2021)

Military - note

the Angolan Armed Forces were created in 1991 under the Bicesse Accords signed between the Angolan Government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 

the Angolan Armed Forces are responsible for external security but also have domestic security responsibilities, including border security, expulsion of irregular migrants, and small-scale actions against groups like the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda separatists in Cabinda (2022)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Angola are a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2021, four attacks against commercial vessels were reported, a decrease from the six attacks in 2020; most of these occurred in the main port of Luanda while ships were berthed or at anchor

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Angola-Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Angola-Namibia: none identified

Angola-Republic of Congo: (Kabinda Exclave) none identified

Angola-Zambia: because the straight-line segments along the left bank (Zambian side) of the Cuando/Kwando River do not conform with the physical alignment of the unstable shoreline, Zambian residents in some areas have settled illegally on sections of shoreline that fall on the Angolan side of the boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 37,159 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 9,272 (Guinea), 6,357 (Cote d'Ivoire), 5,725 (Mauritania) (2022)

Illicit drugs

used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa