Country Summary

2022 population pyramid



Following its independence in 1991, Azerbaijan succeeded in significantly reducing the poverty rate and has directed revenues from its oil and gas production to develop the country’s infrastructure.



total: 86,600 sq km
land: 82,629 sq km
water: 3,971 sq km


dry, semiarid steppe

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite

People and Society


10,420,515 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% (2009 est.)


Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)


Muslim 97.3% (predominantly Shia), Christian 2.6%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.63% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Baku (Baki, Baky)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ali ASADOV (since 8 October 2019); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

oil-based economy; macroeconomic instabilities due to demand shocks; recent state bailout of largest lender; potential economic gains from Nagorno-Karabakh conflict; negatively impacted by COVID-19; investing in human capital to diversify and retain younger generation

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$146.305 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,400 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, potatoes, barley, tomatoes, watermelons, cotton, apples, maize, onions


petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles


$25.488 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Italy 28%, Turkey 15%, Israel 7%, Germany 5%, India 5% (2017)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, tomatoes, gold (2019)


$16.337 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United Kingdom 17%, Russia 17%, Turkey 12%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

gold, cars, refined petroleum, wheat, packaged medical supplies (2019)

Exchange rates

Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
1.7 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023