Photos of Azerbaijan

The Maiden Tower in Baku, Azerbaijan was built sometime between A.D. 800 and 1200, while the higher parts and the addition jutting out from the tower were built in around the 12th century. Standing 29 m tall (96 ft) the tower probably served as a Zoroastrian fire temple before becoming a fortification in the 12th century. The Maiden Tower houses a museum showing the history of Baku. The Tower, a UNESCO World Heritage site as part of a group of monuments, is a national emblem for Azerbaijan and appears on the country’s currency.



Azerbaijan -- a secular nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population -- was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades.

Beginning in 1988, Azerbaijan and Armenia fought over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, which was populated largely by ethnic Armenians but incorporated into Soviet Azerbaijan as an autonomous oblast in the early 1920s. In the late Soviet period, an ethnic-Armenian separatist movement sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a ceasefire took effect in 1994, separatists with Armenian support controlled Nagorno‑Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. After decades of cease-fire violations and sporadic flare-ups, a second sustained conflict began in 2020 when Azerbaijan tried to win back the territories it had lost in the 1990s. After significant Azerbaijani gains, Armenia returned the southern part of Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding territories to Azerbaijan. In September 2023, Azerbaijan took military action to regain the rest of Nagorno-Karabakh; after a conflict that lasted only one day, nearly the entire ethnic Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh fled to Armenia.

Since gaining its independence in 1991, Azerbaijan has significantly reduced the poverty rate and has directed some revenue from its oil and gas production to develop the country’s infrastructure. However, corruption remains a burden on the economy, and Western observers and members of the country’s political opposition have accused the government of authoritarianism. The country’s leadership has remained in the ALIYEV family since Heydar ALIYEV, the most highly ranked Azerbaijani member of the Communist Party during the Soviet period, became president during the first Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1993. 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range

Geographic coordinates

40 30 N, 47 30 E


total: 86,600 sq km

land: 82,629 sq km

water: 3,971 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the final status of the region has yet to be determined

comparison ranking: total 113

Area - comparative

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,468 km

border countries (5): Armenia 996 km; Georgia 428 km; Iran 689 km; Russia 338 km; Turkey 17 km


0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


dry, semiarid steppe


large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea


highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

mean elevation: 384 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite

Land use

agricultural land: 57.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 32.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.3% (2018 est.)

other: 31.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

14,649 sq km (2020)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Caspian Sea (shared with Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan) - 374,000 sq km

Population distribution

highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the country, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population

Geography - note

both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked

People and Society


total: 10,650,239

male: 5,330,233

female: 5,320,006 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 90; male 90; total 88


noun: Azerbaijani(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups

Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% (2009 est.)

note: Nagorno-Karabakh, which is part of Azerbaijan on the basis of the borders recognized when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, was populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians; Azerbaijan has over 80 ethnic groups


Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Dünya fakt kitabı, əsas məlumatlar üçün əvəz olunmaz mənbədir (Azerbaijani)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: Russian is widely spoken


Muslim 97.3% (predominantly Shia), Christian 2.6%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2020 est.)

note: religious affiliation for the majority of Azerbaijanis is largely nominal, percentages for actual practicing adherents are probably much lower

Demographic profile

Azerbaijan’s citizenry has over 80 ethnic groups. The far eastern part of the country has the highest population density, particularly in and around Baku. Apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population. Approximately 57% of the country’s inhabitants lives in urban areas.  While the population is continuing to grow, it is in the early stages of aging. The declining fertility rate – which has decreased from about 5.5 children per woman in the 1950s to less than the 2.1 replacement level in 2022 – combined with increasing life expectancy has resulted in the elderly making up a larger share of Azerbaijan’s populace. The percentage of elderly residents and the slowed growth and eventual shrinkage of the working-age population could put pressure on the country’s pension and healthcare systems. 

Age structure

0-14 years: 22.3% (male 1,269,241/female 1,104,529)

15-64 years: 68.7% (male 3,659,441/female 3,656,493)

65 years and over: 9% (2024 est.) (male 401,551/female 558,984)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.2

youth dependency ratio: 34.7

elderly dependency ratio: 9.7

potential support ratio: 10.3 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 34.3 years (2024 est.)

male: 32.8 years

female: 36 years

comparison ranking: total 104

Population growth rate

0.43% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 156

Birth rate

11.2 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 161

Death rate

6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Net migration rate

-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 129

Population distribution

highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the country, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population


urban population: 57.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Nagorno-Karabakh

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.432 million BAKU (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.15 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

41 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 102

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 12.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 123

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.9 years (2024 est.)

male: 73.5 years

female: 78.6 years

comparison ranking: total population 120

Total fertility rate

1.69 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 167

Gross reproduction rate

0.79 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.3% of population

total: 97.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.7% of population

total: 2.9% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

4.6% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

3.17 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: (2020 est.) NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

19.9% (2016)

comparison ranking: 107

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.38 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.36 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.94 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 143

Tobacco use

total: 24% (2020 est.)

male: 47.9% (2020 est.)

female: 0.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 58

Education expenditures

4.3% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 108


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.7% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2021)


Environment - current issues

local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton; surface and underground water are polluted by untreated municipal and industrial wastewater and agricultural run-off

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


dry, semiarid steppe

Land use

agricultural land: 57.6% (2018 est.)

arable land: 22.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.7% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 32.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 11.3% (2018 est.)

other: 31.1% (2018 est.)


urban population: 57.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Nagorno-Karabakh

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 123

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 24.64 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 37.62 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 44.87 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,930,349 tons (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Caspian Sea (shared with Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan) - 374,000 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 400 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 570 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 11.6 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

34.68 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan

conventional short form: Azerbaijan

local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

local short form: Azarbaycan

former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: the name translates as "Land of Fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges

Government type

presidential republic


name: Baku (Baki, Baky)

geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

etymology: the name derives from the Persian designation of the city "bad-kube" meaning "wind-pounded city" and refers to the harsh winds and severe snow storms that can hit the city

note: at approximately 28 m below sea level, Baku's elevation makes it the lowest capital city in the world

Administrative divisions

66 districts (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);

rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab

cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax


30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)

National holiday

Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)


history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Ali ASADOV (since 8 October 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds (if needed) for a 7-year term; a single individual is eligible for unlimited terms; election last held on 7 February 2024 (next to be held in 2031); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum extended the presidential term from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president; however, no additional vice presidents have been appointed since the constitutional amendment was passed

election results:
Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 92.1%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 2.2%; on 16 February 2024, Ali ASADOV reappointed prime minister by parliamentary vote, 105-1

Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats, current 116; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held early on 9 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 69, CSP 3, AVP 1, CUP 1, ADMP 1, PDR 1, Great Order 1, National Front Party 1, REAL 1, VP 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, party unknown 1, independent 41; composition- men 95, women 21, percentage women 18.1%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Azerbaijan Democratic Enlightenment Party or ADMP [Elshan MASAYEV]
Civic Solidarity Party or VHP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
Civic Unity Party or VBP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
Great Order Party [Fazil MUSTAFA]
Islamic Party of Azerbaijan or AiP [Mavsum SAMADOV]
Musavat (Equity) Party [Arif HAJILI]
Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
National Front Party [Razi NURULLAYEV]
National Revival Movement Party [Faraj GULIYEV]
Party for Democratic Reforms or DIP [Asim MOLLAZADE]
Republican Alternative Party or REAL [Ilgar MAMMADOV]
Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
Social Prosperity Party [Asli KAZIMOVA]
Unity Party or VP [Tahir KARIMLI]
Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
New Azerbaijan Party (Yeni Azərbaycan Partiyasi) or YAP [Ilham ALIYEV]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Khazar IBRAHIM (since 15 September 2021)

chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500

FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mark LIBBY (since 18 January 2024)

embassy: 111 Azadlig Avenue, AZ1007 Baku

mailing address: 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050

telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300

FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330

email address and website:

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a vertical crescent moon and an eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world

National symbol(s)

flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green

National anthem

name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)

lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV

note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (4 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Walled City of Baku; Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape; Historic Center of Sheki; Cultural Landscape of Khinalig People and "Koc Yolu" Transhumance Route


Economic overview

oil-based economy; macroeconomic instabilities due to demand shocks; recent state bailout of largest lender; potential economic gains from Nagorno-Karabakh conflict; negatively impacted by COVID-19; investing in human capital to diversify and retain younger generation

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$153.083 billion (2022 est.)
$146.327 billion (2021 est.)
$138.546 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 79

Real GDP growth rate

4.62% (2022 est.)
5.62% (2021 est.)
-4.3% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 88

Real GDP per capita

$15,100 (2022 est.)
$14,400 (2021 est.)
$13,700 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 112

GDP (official exchange rate)

$78.721 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

13.85% (2022 est.)
6.65% (2021 est.)
2.76% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 181

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2016)

Moody's rating: Ba2 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: BB+ (2016)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 53.5% (2017 est.)

services: 40.4% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 211; industry 7; agriculture 119

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 23.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 48.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, potatoes, barley, tomatoes, watermelons, cotton, apples, onions, maize (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate

0.4% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 157

Labor force

5.433 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 77

Unemployment rate

5.65% (2022 est.)
6.04% (2021 est.)
7.24% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 118

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 16.5% (2021 est.)

male: 14.4%

female: 18.9%

comparison ranking: total 105

Average household expenditures

on food: 43.6% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 2% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)


5.02% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.78% of GDP (2021 est.)
3.29% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $19.95 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $16.001 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 93

Public debt

16.82% of GDP (2021 est.)
22.19% of GDP (2020 est.)
54.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 194

Taxes and other revenues

13.42% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 158

Current account balance

$23.478 billion (2022 est.)
$8.203 billion (2021 est.)
-$316.301 million (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 20


$47.274 billion (2022 est.)
$25.494 billion (2021 est.)
$15.214 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 69

Exports - partners

Italy 47%, Turkey 9%, Israel 4%, India 4%, Greece 4% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, fertilizers, aluminum (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$21.274 billion (2022 est.)
$16.432 billion (2021 est.)
$15.632 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 94

Imports - partners

Russia 17%, Turkey 17%, China 10%, UAE 5%, Georgia 5% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, wheat, packaged medicine (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$11.29 billion (2022 est.)
$8.307 billion (2021 est.)
$7.634 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 90

Debt - external

$17.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 99

Exchange rates

Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1.7 (2022 est.)
1.7 (2021 est.)
1.7 (2020 est.)
1.7 (2019 est.)
1.7 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)


installed generating capacity: 7.71 million kW (2022 est.)

consumption: 23.827 billion kWh (2022 est.)

exports: 2.997 billion kWh (2022 est.)

imports: 137 million kWh (2022 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.25 billion kWh (2022 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 127; imports 109; exports 48; consumption 71; installed generating capacity 74

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 93.6% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

solar: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

wind: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

hydroelectricity: 5.5% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)

biomass and waste: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2022 est.)


consumption: 60,000 metric tons (2022 est.)

imports: 20,000 metric tons (2022 est.)


total petroleum production: 618,000 bbl/day (2023 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 105,000 bbl/day (2022 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 7 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 34.175 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

consumption: 11.759 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

exports: 22.4 billion cubic meters (2022 est.)

imports: 67.711 million cubic meters (2022 est.)

proven reserves: 1.699 trillion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

36.187 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 137,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 12.982 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 23.068 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 66

Energy consumption per capita

61.497 million Btu/person (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: 77


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1.641 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 58

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 11.068 million (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 89

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

the telecom sector was one of the major contributors to Azerbaijan’s non-oil GDP, overall development, growth, and investment; mobile usage rates reached 100% as far back as 2011, but have largely stagnated since then; the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) are slowly extending the reach of their long-term evolution (LTE) networks around the country, and this increased coverage (along with access to faster data-based services) is expected to produce a moderate resurgence for both mobile and mobile broadband over the next few years as customers migrate from 3G to 4G. 5G services are still some ways off, as the demand for high-speed data and fast broadband can easily be met by existing capacity on LTE networks; fixed-line tele density continues to drop down each year as customers consolidate their telecommunications services around the mobile platform; yet the rate of decline is comparatively slow to other countries, since Azerbaijan has a relatively high proportion of (87%) of fixed-line broadband customers still on DSL; Fiber (12% of fixed broadband connections) is gradually being rolled out in urban areas, and this makes up the bulk of the (limited) growth being seen in the overall fixed broadband market; DSL’s predominance, however, will serve to keep Azerbaijan’s average access speeds in the sub-10Mbps range for the foreseeable future


domestic: 16 fixed-lines subscriptions per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscriptions of 107 telephones per 100 persons (2022)

international: country code - 994; Azerbaijan’s largest mobile network operator (MNO)  launched trial 5G mobile services in Baku on 27 December 2022 (2023)

Broadcast media

3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; note - all broadcast media is pro-government, and most private broadcast media outlets are owned by entities directly linked to the government

Internet users

total: 8.6 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 68

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,995,474 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 58


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 42 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 44

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,279,546 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 44.09 million (2018) mt-km


32 (2024)

comparison ranking: 117


5 (2024)


89 km condensate, 3,890 km gas, 2,446 km oil (2013)


total: 2,944.3 km (2017)

broad gauge: 2,944.3 km (2017) 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified)

comparison ranking: total 59


total: 24,981 km (2013)

note: total roadway length has increased significantly and continues to grow due to the recovery of Armenian-held territories and related reconstruction efforts. No updated figure is currently available.

comparison ranking: total 107

Merchant marine

total: 312 (2023)

by type: general cargo 40, oil tanker 44, other 228

comparison ranking: total 56

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Azerbaijan Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Forces, Navy Forces, State Border Service, Coast Guard

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Troops, local police forces; Special State Protection Service (SSPS): National Guard (2024)

note: the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the State Security Service (intelligence, counterterrorism) are responsible for internal security; the SSPS is under the president and provides protective services to senior officials, foreign missions, significant state assets, government buildings, etc; the National Guard also serves as a reserve for the Army

Military expenditures

4.5% of GDP (2022 est.)
5% of GDP (2021 est.)
5% of GDP (2020 est.)
3.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
3.6% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 11

Military and security service personnel strengths

estimates vary; approximately 60-75,000 active armed forces; approximately 15,000 Ministry of Internal Affairs troops (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

Baku has been actively upgrading its equipment for over a decade with purchases from Belarus, Israel, Russia, and Turkey; while most of the military's equipment was once Soviet-era material, it now fields quantities of advanced equipment, including armored vehicles, artillery systems, air defense systems, tanks, and UAVs (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for compulsory military service for men; 17-35 years of age for voluntary service for men and women; 18 months service for conscripts (2023)

note: most of the military is made up of professional contract soldiers; as of 2018, women made up an estimated 3% of the active duty military

Military - note

the Azerbaijani military was established in 1991, although its origins go back to 1918; much of the military’s original equipment was acquired from former Soviet military forces that departed Azerbaijan by 1992; territorial defense is the military’s primary focus, particularly with regards to neighboring Armenia; a secondary focus is guarding against Iran; Armenia and Azerbaijan engaged in open conflicts over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave in 1991-94 and 2020; tensions continued following the 2020 conflict, and Azerbaijan seized the entire enclave in 2023 

Turkey has been Azerbaijan’s strongest military partner, a relationship that has included weapons transfers, technical advice, bilateral training exercises, and key support during its conflicts with Armenia; Azerbaijan is not part of NATO but has had a cooperative relationship with it dating back to when it joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has provided troops to NATO-led missions in Kosovo (1999-2008) and Afghanistan (2002-2014) (2023)


Space agency/agencies

Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency (NASA; Azərbaycan Milli Aerokosmik Agentliyi, MAKA; established in 1992 from the Kaspiy Scientific Center, established 1974); Space Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azercosmos; established 2010 as a state-owned satellite operating company) (2024)

Space program overview

national space program largely focused on the acquisition and operation of satellites; operates foreign-built communications and remote sensing (RS) satellites; has two satellite ground control stations; cooperates with a variety of foreign space agencies and commercial entities, including those of China, the European Space Agency (and individual member states such as France), Israel, Russia, Turkey, and the US; Azercosmos is the largest satellite operator in the Caucasus region (2024)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S


Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS); Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)/Qods Force

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 659,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2022)

stateless persons: 3,585 (2022)

Illicit drugs

limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe