Cabo Verde

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century. Following independence in 1975, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cabo Verde continues to sustain one of Africa's most stable democratic governments and one of its most stable economies.



total: 4,033 sq km
land: 4,033 sq km
water: 0 sq km


temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic

Natural resources

salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum

People and Society


603,901 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Creole (Mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%


Portuguese (official), Krioulo (a Portuguese-based Creole language with two main dialects spoken in Cabo Verde and in the Cabo Verdean diaspora worldwide)


Roman Catholic 77.3%, Protestant 4.6% (includes Church of the Nazarene 1.7%, Adventist 1.5%, Assembly of God 0.9%, Universal Kingdom of God 0.4%, and God and Love 0.1%), other Christian 3.4% (includes Christian Rationalism 1.9%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, and New Apostolic 0.5%), Muslim 1.8%, other 1.3%, none 10.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2010 est.)

Population growth rate

1.19% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Praia

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jose Maria NEVES (since 9 November 2021)
head of government: Prime Minister Ulisses CORREIA E. SILVA (since 22 April 2016)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

tourism-dominated economy benefits from the country’s relative close proximity to Europe; 2009 Financial Crisis halted economic growth for seven years; leveraging export-based growth; COVID-19 decimated economic growth and recovery; high external debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.595 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$6,100 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, tomatoes, bananas, cabbages, coconuts, cassava, pulses, vegetables, milk, goat milk


food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair


16.12% of GDP (2021 est.)


$459.923 million (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Spain 65%, Portugal 14%, Italy 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

tuna, mackerel, aircraft, other processed and frozen fish, postage stamps and title bond paper documents, mollusks (2021)


$1.117 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Portugal 36%, Netherlands 16%, Spain 11%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, delivery trucks, coal tar oil, cars, rice (2019)

Exchange rates

Cabo Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar -
93.218 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, April 11, 2023