Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority continue, with Turkey controlling part of the island since 1974. The entire island joined the EU in 2004, although EU law does not apply in the Turkish-controlled area.



total: 9,251 sq km
land: 9,241 sq km
water: 10 sq km


temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Natural resources

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

People and Society


total: 1,320,525
male: 675,196
female: 645,329 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6%; note - data represent only the Republic of Cyprus (2011 est.)


Eastern Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite Catholic, Armenian Apostolic, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.95% (2024 est.)


Government type

Republic of Cyprus - presidential republic; self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC) - parliamentary republic with enhanced presidency


name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government
head of government: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023)

Legislative branch

description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms; note - 3 seats each are reserved for the Latin, Maronite, and Armenian religious groups;
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral "Assembly of the Republic" or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote using a hybrid d'Hondt method with voter preference for individual candidates


Economic overview

services-based, high-income EU island economy; heavy tourism; sustained growth between recovery of national banking system and COVID-19 trade restrictions; high living standards; a known financial hub, its stock exchange functions as an investment bridge between EU-and EEU-member countries

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$41.068 billion (2022 est.)
$39.091 billion (2021 est.)
$35.566 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$45,000 (2022 est.)
$43,400 (2021 est.)
$39,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, sheep milk, pork, goat milk, wheat, chicken, barley, grapes, olives (2022)


tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products


$27.72 billion (2022 est.)
$26.303 billion (2021 est.)
$20.379 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Hong Kong 10%, Greece 10%, Lebanon 7%, UK 6%, Liberia 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, packaged medicine, cheese, scented mixtures (2022)


$27.658 billion (2022 est.)
$25.164 billion (2021 est.)
$20.711 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Greece 19%, Turkey 12%, Italy 9%, China 9%, Israel 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, ships, cars, packaged medicine, garments (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 15, 2024