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Introduction

Background

A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority communities came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued, forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to overthrow the elected president of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot administered area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), but it is recognized only by Turkey. An UN-mediated agreement, the Annan Plan, failed to win approval by both communities in 2004. In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. The most recent round of negotiations to reunify the island were suspended in July 2017 after failure to achieve a breakthrough. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the "TRNC." However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of EU states.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey; note - Cyprus views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Geographic coordinates

35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 9,251 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)

land: 9,241 sq km

water: 10 sq km

country comparison to the world: 169

Area - comparative

about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 156 km

border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 48 km; Dhekelia 108 km

Coastline

648 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Terrain

central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation

highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 91 m

Natural resources

copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use

agricultural land: 13.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 18.8% (2018 est.)

other: 67.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

460 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca

Natural hazards

moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Geography - note

the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia); several small Cypriot enclaves exist within the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area

Map description

Cyprus map showing the island country in the Mediterranean Sea.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups

Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the Greek-Cypriot citizens in the Republic of Cyprus

Languages

Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6%; note - data represent only the Republic of Cyprus (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Το Παγκόσμιο Βιβλίο Δεδομένων, η απαραίτητη πηγή βασικών πληροφοριών. (Greek)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Greek audio sample:

Religions

Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite, Armenian Church, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.)

note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.69% (male 102,095/female 96,676)

15-24 years: 12.29% (male 84,832/female 70,879)

25-54 years: 47.12% (male 316,710/female 280,167)

55-64 years: 11.92% (male 72,476/female 78,511)

65 years and over: 12.97% (2020 est.) (male 71,053/female 93,277)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.9

youth dependency ratio: 24

elderly dependency ratio: 20.9

potential support ratio: 4.8 (2020 est.)

note: data represent the whole country

Median age

total: 37.9 years

male: 36.7 years

female: 39.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Birth rate

10.57 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180

Death rate

6.94 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

Net migration rate

6.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Population distribution

population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca

Urbanization

urban population: 66.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

269,000 NICOSIA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.55 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

30 years (2020 est.)

note: data represent only government-controlled areas

Maternal mortality ratio

6 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.36 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 10.22 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.74 years

male: 76.93 years

female: 82.68 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99.8% of population

total: 99.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0.2% of population

total: 0.2% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

3.14 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 98.8% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 1.2% of population

total: 0.6% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2017 est.) <100

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 9.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 2.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 2.72 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Tobacco use

total: 35.1% (2020 est.)

male: 47% (2020 est.)

female: 23.2% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 14

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.5%

female: 98.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 16 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 18.2%

male: 24.4%

female: 12.3% (2020 est.)

People - note

demographic data for Cyprus represent the population of the government-controlled area and the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, unless otherwise indicated

Environment

Environment - current issues

water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage, industrial wastes, and pesticides; coastal degradation; erosion; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 16.79 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 6.63 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.86 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Land use

agricultural land: 13.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 9.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 3.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 18.8% (2018 est.)

other: 67.8% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 66.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 87

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 541,000 tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 72,007 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 13.3% (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 110 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 17 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 184 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

780 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia (Greek)/ Kibris Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)

local short form: Kypros (Greek)/ Kibris (Turkish)

etymology: the derivation of the name "Cyprus" is unknown, but the extensive mining of copper metal on the island in antiquity gave rise to the Latin word "cuprum" for copper

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" or "TRNC" ("Kuzey Kibris Turk Cumhuriyeti" or "KKTC")

Government type

Republic of Cyprus - presidential republic; self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC) - parliamentary republic with enhanced presidency

note: a separation of the two main ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified when a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt prompted the Turkish military intervention in July 1974 that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government on the island; on 15 November 1983, then Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of the "TRNC,” which is recognized only by Turkey

Capital

name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)

geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: a mispronunciation of the city's Greek name Lefkosia and its Turkish name Lefkosa, both of which mean "White City"; the Greek name may derive from the Greek phrase "leuke ousia" ("white estate")

Administrative divisions

6 districts; Ammochostos (Famagusta; all but a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Keryneia (Kyrenia; the only district located entirely in the Turkish Cypriot community), Larnaka (Larnaca; with a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Lefkosia (Nicosia; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lemesos (Limassol), Pafos (Paphos); note - the 5 "districts" of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" are Gazimagusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Guzelyurt (Morphou), Iskele (Trikomo), Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Independence

16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as "Republic Day"

Constitution

history: ratified 16 August 1960; note - in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"); in 1985, the "TRNC" approved its own constitution

amendments: constitution of the Republic of Cyprus - proposed by the House of Representatives; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership of the "Greek Community" and the "Turkish Community"; however, all seats of Turkish Cypriot members have remained vacant since 1964; amended many times, last in 2020;
constitution of the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” - proposed by at least 10 members of the "Assembly of the Republic"; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership and approval by referendum; amended 2014

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law and civil law with European law supremacy

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot, but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

head of government: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 28 January 2018 with a runoff on 4 February 2018 (next to be held in February 2023)

election results: 2018: Nikos ANASTASIADIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 56%, Stavros MALAS 44%

2013: Nikos ANASTASIADIS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 45.5% (DISY), Stavros  MALAS 26.9% (AKEL), Georgos LILLIKAS 24.9% (SP), other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 57.5%, Savros MALAS 42.5%

note: the first round of the TRNC presidential election, originally scheduled for 26 April 2020, was postponed to 11 October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the second round was held on 18 October 2020; percent of vote in the first round - Ersin TATAR (UBP) 32.4%, Mustafa AKINCI (independent) 29.8%, Tufan ERHURMAN (RTP) 21.7%, Kudret OZERSAY (independent) 5.7%, Erhan ARIKLI (YDP) 5.4%, Serdar DENKTAS (independent) 4.2%, other 0.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Ersin TATAR 51.7%, Mustafa AKINCI 48.3%

Legislative branch

description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral "Assembly of the Republic" or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected to 5-year terms by proportional representation system using a hybrid d'Hondt method with voter preferences for individual candidates

elections: area under government control: last held on 30 May 2021 (next to be held in 2026); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 23 January 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - DISY 27.8%, AKEL 22.3%, DIKO 11.3%, ELAM 6.8%, EDEK-SP 6.7%, DiPa 6.1%, Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 4.4%, other 14.6%; seats by party/coalition - DISY 17, AKEL 15, DIKO 9, ELAM 4, EDEK-SP 4, DiPa 4, Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Cooperation 3; area administered by Turkish Cypriots - "Assembly of the Republic" - percent of vote by party - UBP 39.5%, CTP 32%, DP 7.4%, HP 6.7%, YDP 6.4%, other 8%; seats by party - UBP 24, CTP 18, DP 3, HP 3, YDP 2

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court of Cyprus (consists of 13 judges, including the court president); note - the highest court in the "TRNC" is the "Supreme Court" (consists of 8 "judges," including the "court president")

judge selection and term of office: Republic of Cyprus Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court judges; judges can serve until age 68; "TRNC Supreme Court" judges appointed by the "Supreme Council of Judicature," a 12-member body of judges, the attorney general, appointees by the president of the "TRNC," and by the "Legislative Assembly," and members elected by the bar association; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Republic of Cyprus district courts; Assize Courts; Administrative Court; specialized courts for issues relating to family, industrial disputes, the military, and rent control; "TRNC Assize Courts"; "district and family courts"

Political parties and leaders

area under government control:
Citizens' Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS] (dissolved 2 December 2021)
Democratic Front or DiPa [Marios GAROYIAN]
Democratic Party or DIKO [Nikolas PAPADOPOULOS]
Democratic Rally or DISY [Averof NEOPHYTOU]
Movement of Ecologists - Citizens' Alliance [Charalambos THEOPEMPTOU]
Movement of Social Democrats EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS]
National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU]
Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Stefanos STEFANOU]
Solidarity Movement [Eleni THEOCHAROUS]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mine ATLI]
Communal Liberation Party - New Forces or TKP-YG [Mehmet CAKICI]
Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Mehmet BIRINCI]
Democratic Party or DP [Fikri ATAOGLU]
National Democratic Party or NDP [Buray BUSKUVUTCU]
National Unity Party or UBP [Faiz SUCUOGLU]
New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]
People's Party or HP [Kudret OZERSAY]
Rebirth Party or YDP [Erhan ARIKLI]
Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Tufan ERHURMAN]
United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]

International organization participation

Australia Group, C, CD, CE, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marios LYSIOTIS (since 17 September 2018)

chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710

email address and website:
info@cyprusembassy.net

https://www.cyprusembassy.net/

consulate(s) general: New York

honorary consulate(s): Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Kirkland (WA), Los Angeles, New Orleans, San Francisco

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Mustafa LAKADAMYALI; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Judith Gail GARBER (since 18 March 2019)

embassy: Metochiou and Ploutarchou Street, 2407, Engomi, Nicosia

mailing address: 5450 Nicosia Place, Washington DC  20521-5450

telephone: [357] (22) 393939

FAX: [357] (22) 780944

email address and website:
ACSNicosia@state.gov

https://cy.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

centered on a white field is a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the island has long been famous for its copper deposits) above two olive-green-colored, crossed olive branches; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Kosovo is the other

note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

National symbol(s)

Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep), white dove; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)

lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish Cypriot community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 3 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Paphos; Painted Churches in the Troodos Region; Choirokoitia

Economy

Economic overview

The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by a services sector that accounts for more than four-fifths of GDP. Tourism, finance, shipping, and real estate have traditionally been the most important services. Cyprus has been a member of the EU since May 2004 and adopted the euro as its national currency in January 2008.

 

During the first five years of EU membership, the Cyprus economy grew at an average rate of about 4%, with unemployment between 2004 and 2008 averaging about 4%. However, the economy tipped into recession in 2009 as the ongoing global financial crisis and resulting low demand hit the tourism and construction sectors. An overextended banking sector with excessive exposure to Greek debt added to the contraction. Cyprus’ biggest two banks were among the largest holders of Greek bonds in Europe and had a substantial presence in Greece through bank branches and subsidiaries. Following numerous downgrades of its credit rating, Cyprus lost access to international capital markets in May 2011. In July 2012, Cyprus became the fifth euro-zone government to request an economic bailout program from the European Commission, European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund - known collectively as the "Troika."

 

Shortly after the election of President Nikos ANASTASIADES in February 2013, Cyprus reached an agreement with the Troika on a $13 billion bailout that triggered a two-week bank closure and the imposition of capital controls that remained partially in place until April 2015. Cyprus' two largest banks merged and the combined entity was recapitalized through conversion of some large bank deposits to shares and imposition of losses on bank bondholders. As with other EU countries, the Troika conditioned the bailout on passing financial and structural reforms and privatizing state-owned enterprises. Despite downsizing and restructuring, the Cypriot financial sector remains burdened by the largest stock of non-performing loans in the euro zone, equal to nearly half of all loans. Since the bailout, Cyprus has received positive appraisals by the Troika and outperformed fiscal targets but has struggled to overcome political opposition to bailout-mandated legislation, particularly regarding privatizations. The rate of non-performing loans (NPLs) is still very high at around 49%, and growth would accelerate if Cypriot banks could increase the pace of resolution of the NPLs.

 

In October 2013, a US-Israeli consortium completed preliminary appraisals of hydrocarbon deposits in Cyprus’ exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which estimated gross mean reserves of about 130 billion cubic meters. Though exploration continues in Cyprus’ EEZ, no additional commercially exploitable reserves have been identified. Developing offshore hydrocarbon resources remains a critical component of the government’s economic recovery efforts, but development has been delayed as a result of regional developments and disagreements about exploitation methods.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$33.67 billion (2020 est.)

$35.48 billion (2019 est.)

$34.42 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 131

Real GDP growth rate

3.08% (2019 est.)

5.25% (2018 est.)

5.16% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Real GDP per capita

$37,700 (2020 est.)

$40,200 (2019 est.)

$39,600 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 48

GDP (official exchange rate)

$24.946 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.2% (2019 est.)

1.4% (2018 est.)

0.5% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB- (2018)

Moody's rating: Ba2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB- (2018)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2017 est.)

industry: 12.5% (2017 est.)

services: 85.5% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 63.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, pork, sheep milk, goat milk, barley, wheat, poultry, olives, tangerines/mandarins

Industries

tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 15.2%

services: 81% (2014 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 18.2%

male: 24.4%

female: 12.3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 87

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 28.8% (2014)

Budget

revenues: 8.663 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 8.275 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

97.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

106.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

country comparison to the world: 19

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.578 billion (2019 est.)

-$958 million (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Exports

$16.1 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$17.92 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$19.02 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 90

Exports - partners

India 9%, Greece 9%, Libya 8%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, packaged medicines, cheese, crude petroleum (2019)

Imports

$17.58 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$18.2 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$18.6 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 91

Imports - partners

Greece 16%, Italy 10%, Turkey 8%, Russia 5%, Germany 5%, United Kingdom 5%, China 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, ships, cars, coal tar oil, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$888.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$817.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Debt - external

$213.19 billion (2019 est.)

$231.885 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots

Economy - overview: Even though the whole of the island is part of the EU, implementation of the EU "acquis communautaire" has been suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, known locally as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), until political conditions permit the reunification of the island. The market-based economy of the "TRNC" is roughly one-fifth the size of its southern neighbor and is likewise dominated by the service sector with a large portion of the population employed by the government. In 2012 - the latest year for which data are available - the services sector, which includes the public sector, trade, tourism, and education, contributed 58.7% to economic output. In the same year, light manufacturing and agriculture contributed 2.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Manufacturing is limited mainly to food and beverages, furniture and fixtures, construction materials, metal and non-metal products, textiles and clothing. The "TRNC" maintains few economic ties with the Republic of Cyprus outside of trade in construction materials. Since its creation, the "TRNC" has heavily relied on financial assistance from Turkey, which supports the "TRNC" defense, telecommunications, water and postal services. The Turkish Lira is the preferred currency, though foreign currencies are widely accepted in business transactions. The "TRNC" remains vulnerable to the Turkish market and monetary policy because of its use of the Turkish Lira. The "TRNC" weathered the European financial crisis relatively unscathed - compared to the Republic of Cyprus - because of the lack of financial sector development, the health of the Turkish economy, and its separation from the rest of the island. The "TRNC" economy experienced growth estimated at 2.8% in 2013 and 2.3% in 2014 and is projected to grow 3.8% in 2015.;

GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.829 billion (2007 est.);

GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2014 est.);

2.8% (2013 est.);

GDP - per capita: $11,700 (2007 est.);

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6.2%,; industry: 35.1%,; services: 58.7% (2012 est.);

Labor force: 95,030 (2007 est.);

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14.5%,; industry: 29%,; services: 56.5% (2004);

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2005 est.);

Population below poverty line: %NA;

Inflation rate: 11.4% (2006);

Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion,; expenditures: $2.5 billion (2006);

Agriculture - products: citrus fruit, dairy, potatoes, grapes, olives, poultry, lamb;

Industries: foodstuffs, textiles, clothing, ship repair, clay, gypsum, copper, furniture;

Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (2007 est.);

Electricity production: 998.9 million kWh (2005);

Electricity consumption: 797.9 million kWh (2005);

Exports: $68.1 million, f.o.b. (2007 est.);

Export - commodities: citrus, dairy, potatoes, textiles;

Export - partners: Turkey 40%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited;

Imports: $1.2 billion, f.o.b. (2007 est.);

Import - commodities: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery;

Import - partners: Turkey 60%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited;

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: NA;

Debt - external: NA;

Currency (code): Turkish new lira (YTL);

Exchange rates: Turkish new lira per US dollar:; 1.9 (2013); 1.8 (2012); 1.668 (2011); 1.5026 (2010); 1.55 (2009);

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 1.881 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4.733 billion kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 184 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 86.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 5.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 1.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 54,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

8.024 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 8.024 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 311,439 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,239,960 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 140 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Cyprus has suffered from the effects of the pandemic, which essentially closed down the tourism sector during 2020 and into 2021; the incumbent telco Cyta reported strong revenue growth in 2020, largely due to greater use of broadband and mobile services, though investment fell as a result of pandemic-related delays in completing planned projects; the mobile market is served by four mobile network operators, including Cablenet which initially offered services as an MVNO before becoming an MNO in its own right; Cyta has offered mobile services under the Cytamobile-Vodafone brand since 2004 following a partner agreement with Vodafone Group, while Epic was acquired by Monaco Telecom in mid-2018; in mid-2021 Monaco agreed to sell its entire passive infrastructure in Cyprus; the number of mobile subscribers fell in 2020, largely the result of subscribers scaling back on multiple SIM cards as an economic measure; the broadband market continues to develop steadily, providing the country with one of the highest broadband subscription rates in the region; DSL remains the dominant access platform, accounting for about two-thirds of fixed broadband connections; Cablenet is engaged in investment projects which will see its network pass about 80% of premises, compared to 50% as of early 2021; fiber infrastructure in Cyprus is minimal, in common with other markets in the region there are efforts underway (supported by the government and regulator) to extend an FttP service to about 200,000 premises; the number of DSL subscribers is set to fall steadily in coming years as customers are migrated to the fiber platform; regulator concludes multi-spectrum auction for 5G, issues licenses; Epic signs vendor agreement with Huawei to develop 5G (2021)

domestic: fixed-line about 35 per 100 and about 139 per 100 for mobile-cellular teledensity; open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay (2020)

international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, CADMOS, MedNautilus Submarine System, POSEIDON, TE North/TGN-Eurasia/SEACOM/Alexandros/Medes, UGARIT, Aphrodite2, Hawk, Lev Submarine System, and Tamares combine to provide connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Southeast Asia; Turcyos-1 and Turcyos-2 submarine cable in Turkish North Cyprus link to Turkey; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

mixture of state and privately run TV and radio services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels and 4 radio stations; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey, and a number of private radio stations are available; in areas administered by Turkish Cypriots, there are 2 public TV stations, 4 public radio stations, and 7 privately owned TV and 21 radio broadcast stations plus 6 radio and 4 TV channels of local universities, plus 1 radio station of military, security forces and 1 radio station of civil defense cooperation, as well as relay stations from Turkey (2019)

Internet users

total: 1,098,699 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 91% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 332,080 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 401,408 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 20,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2021)

Heliports

9 (2021)

Roadways

total: 12,901 km (2016)

government control: 12,901 km (2016) (includes 272 km of expressways)

paved: 8,631 km (2016)

unpaved: 4,270 km (2016)

Turkish Cypriot control: 7,000 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 128

Merchant marine

total: 1,051

by type: bulk carrier 269, container ship 182, general cargo 197, oil tanker 59, other 344 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 25

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Republic of Cyprus: Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Froura, EF; includes Army Land Forces, Naval Command, Air Command) (2022)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.6% of GDP (2019) (approximately $610 million)

1.8% of GDP (2018) (approximately $650 million)

1.6% of GDP (2017) (approximately $540 million)

country comparison to the world: 58

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 13,000 total active duty personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Cypriot National Guard is a mix of Soviet-era and some more modern weapons systems; since 2010, it has received equipment from several countries, including France, Israel, Russia, and Serbia (2021)

Military service age and obligation

Cypriot National Guard (CNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 14-month service obligation (2022)

Military - note

the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) was set up in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island and bring about a return to normal conditions; the UNFICYP mission had about 800 personnel as of mid-2022

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the EU still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March 2007

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,820 (Syria) (mid-year 2021); 13,580 (Ukraine) (as of 20 September 2022)

IDPs: 242,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced since 1974) (2021)

stateless persons: 66 (mid-year 2021)

note: 43,059 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2022)

Illicit drugs

vulnerable to money laundering from illegal drugs