Egypt

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations in Egypt. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. Egypt has been ruled by many nations, becoming independent in 1952.

Geography

Area

total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Climate

desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

People and Society

Population

total: 111,247,248
male: 57,142,484
female: 54,104,764 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Egyptian 99.7%, other 0.3% (2006 est.)

Languages

Arabic (official), English, and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions

Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10%

Population growth rate

1.49% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Cairo

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (Majlis Al-Shiyoukh) (300 seats; 100 members directly elected in single seat constituencies, 100 directly elected by closed party-list vote, and 100 appointed by the president; note - the upper house, previously the Shura Council, was eliminated in the 2014 constitution, reestablished as the Senate, following passage in a 2019 constitutional referendum and approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020
House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) (596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; members of both houses serve 5-year terms

Economy

Economic overview

Africa’s second-largest economy; 2030 Vision to diversify markets and energy infrastructure; improving fiscal, external, and current accounts; underperforming private sector; poor labor force participation; expanded credit access

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.419 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.331 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.288 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,800 (2022 est.)
$12,200 (2021 est.)
$12,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, sugar beets, wheat, maize, tomatoes, potatoes, rice, milk, onions, oranges (2022)

Industries

textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Exports

$76.295 billion (2022 est.)
$58.339 billion (2021 est.)
$40.102 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Turkey 8%, Italy 6%, US 6%, Spain 6%, India 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, fertilizers, garments, refined petroleum, crude petroleum (2022)

Imports

$97.144 billion (2022 est.)
$94.039 billion (2021 est.)
$72.482 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 17%, US 7%, Saudi Arabia 7%, UAE 6%, Turkey 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, crude petroleum, natural gas, plastics (2022)

Exchange rates

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
19.16 (2022 est.)
15.645 (2021 est.)
15.759 (2020 est.)
16.771 (2019 est.)
17.767 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024