Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations in Egypt. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. Egypt has been ruled by many nations, becoming independent in 1952.



total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km


desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

People and Society


total: 111,247,248
male: 57,142,484
female: 54,104,764 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Egyptian 99.7%, other 0.3% (2006 est.)


Arabic (official), English, and French widely understood by educated classes


Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10%

Population growth rate

1.49% (2024 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Cairo

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (Majlis Al-Shiyoukh) (300 seats; 100 members directly elected in single seat constituencies, 100 directly elected by closed party-list vote, and 100 appointed by the president; note - the upper house, previously the Shura Council, was eliminated in the 2014 constitution, reestablished as the Senate, following passage in a 2019 constitutional referendum and approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020
House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) (596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; members of both houses serve 5-year terms


Economic overview

Africa’s second-largest economy; 2030 Vision to diversify markets and energy infrastructure; improving fiscal, external, and current accounts; underperforming private sector; poor labor force participation; expanded credit access

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.419 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.331 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.288 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,800 (2022 est.)
$12,200 (2021 est.)
$12,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, sugar beets, wheat, maize, tomatoes, potatoes, rice, milk, onions, oranges (2022)


textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures


$76.295 billion (2022 est.)
$58.339 billion (2021 est.)
$40.102 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Turkey 8%, Italy 6%, US 6%, Spain 6%, India 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

natural gas, fertilizers, garments, refined petroleum, crude petroleum (2022)


$97.144 billion (2022 est.)
$94.039 billion (2021 est.)
$72.482 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 17%, US 7%, Saudi Arabia 7%, UAE 6%, Turkey 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, crude petroleum, natural gas, plastics (2022)

Exchange rates

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
19.16 (2022 est.)
15.645 (2021 est.)
15.759 (2020 est.)
16.771 (2019 est.)
17.767 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024