Country Summary



The richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. Egypt has been ruled by many nations, becoming independent in 1952.



total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km


desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

People and Society


109,546,720 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Egyptian 99.7%, other 0.3% (2006 est.)


Arabic (official), English, and French widely understood by educated classes


Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10%

Population growth rate

1.59% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Cairo

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelfattah ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (Majlis Al-Shiyoukh) (300 seats; 100 members directly elected in single seat constituencies, 100 directly elected by closed party-list vote, and 100 appointed by the president; note - the upper house, previously the Shura Council, was eliminated in the 2014 constitution, reestablished as the Senate, following passage in a 2019 constitutional referendum and approved by the House of Representatives in June 2020
House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab) (596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members appointed by the president; members of both houses serve 5-year terms


Economic overview

Africa’s second largest economy; 2030 Vision to diversify markets and energy infrastructure; improving fiscal, external, and current accounts; underperforming private sector; poor labor force participation; expanded credit access

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.264 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.223 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.181 trillion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,600 (2021 est.)
$11,400 (2020 est.)
$11,200 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, sugar beets, wheat, maize, tomatoes, rice, potatoes, oranges, onions, milk


textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures


7.79% of GDP (2021 est.)
8.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
8.84% of GDP (2019 est.)


$58.339 billion (2021 est.)
$40.102 billion (2020 est.)
$53.523 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 8%, Turkey 7%, Greece 7%, Italy 6%, India 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizers, gold (2021)


$94.039 billion (2021 est.)
$72.482 billion (2020 est.)
$78.951 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 18%, Saudi Arabia 9%, United States 6%, Russia 5%, Turkey 5% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, cars, crude petroleum, corn, packaged medicines (2021)

Exchange rates

Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
15.645 (2021 est.)
15.759 (2020 est.)
16.771 (2019 est.)
17.767 (2018 est.)
17.783 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Thursday, September 14, 2023