Equatorial Guinea

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule. It is one of the smallest countries in Africa consisting of a mainland territory and five inhabited islands. Major oil reserves were discovered offshore in the late 1990s, but systemic corruption has hindered economic development.



total: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km


tropical; always hot, humid

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay

People and Society


total: 1,795,834
male: 962,385
female: 833,449 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Fang 78.1%, Bubi 9.4%, Ndowe 2.8%, Nanguedambo 2.7%, Bisio 0.9%, foreigner 5.3%, other 0.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official), Fa d'Ambo spoken in Annobon) 32.4% (1994 est.)


Roman Catholic 88%, Protestant 5%, Muslim 2%, other 5% (animist, Baha'i, Jewish) (2015 est.)

Population growth rate

3.23% (2024 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Malabo; note - Malabo is on the island of Bioko; some months of the year, the government operates out of Bata on the mainland region.

Executive branch

chief of state: President OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup); First Vice President Teodoro Nguema OBIANG Mangue (since 20 November 2022)
head of government: Prime Minister Manuela ROKA Botey (since 1 February 2023); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene (since 23 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Angel MESIE Mibuy (since 5 February 2018); Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY (since 23 June 2016)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (70 seats statutory, 74 seats for current term; 55 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote, 15 appointed by the president, and 4 ex-officio)

Chamber of Deputies or Camara de los Diputados (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

growing CEMAC economy and new OPEC member; large oil and gas reserves; targeting economic diversification and poverty reduction; still recovering from CEMAC crisis; improving public financial management; persistent poverty; hard-hit by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$24.987 billion (2022 est.)
$24.077 billion (2021 est.)
$24.013 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,900 (2022 est.)
$14,700 (2021 est.)
$15,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sweet potatoes, cassava, plantains, oil palm fruit, root vegetables, bananas, coconuts, coffee, cocoa beans, chicken (2022)


petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling


$6.231 billion (2022 est.)
$5.851 billion (2021 est.)
$4.041 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Zambia 21%, Spain 15%, China 15%, India 10%, Italy 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, fertilizers, packaged medicine, cars (2022)


$4.297 billion (2022 est.)
$4.351 billion (2021 est.)
$3.669 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Zambia 38%, China 14%, Spain 10%, Nigeria 7%, US 4% (2022)

Imports - commodities

ships, refined copper, iron alloys, raw copper, poultry (2022)

Exchange rates

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
623.76 (2022 est.)
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024