Photos of Equatorial Guinea

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Introduction

Background

Equatorial Guinea consists of a continental territory and five inhabited islands; it is one of the smallest countries by area and population in Africa. The mainland region, contemporarily known as Rio Muni, was most likely predominantly inhibited by Pygmy ethnic groups prior to the migration of various Bantu-speaking ethnic groups around the second millennium BC. The island of Bioko, the largest of Equatorial Guinea’s five inhabited islands and the location of the country’s capital of Malabo, has been occupied since at least 1000 B.C. In the early 1470s, Portuguese explorers landed on Bioko Island and Portugal soon after established control of the island and other areas of modern Equatorial Guinea. In 1778, Portugal ceded its colonial hold over present-day Equatorial Guinea to Spain in the Treaty of El Pardo. The borders of modern-day Equatorial Guinea would evolve between 1778 and 1968 as the area remained under European colonial rule.

In 1968, Equatorial Guinea was granted independence from Spain and elected Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA as its first president. President MACIAS consolidated power soon after his election and ruled brutally for approximately 11 years. Under his regime, Equatorial Guinea experienced mass suppression, purges, and killings. Some estimates indicate that a third of the population either went into exile or was killed under President MACIAS’ rule. In 1979, present-day President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, then a senior military officer, deposed President MACIAS in a violent coup. President OBIANG has ruled since and has been elected in non-competitive contests several times, most recently in November 2022. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and there is nearly no space for political opposition. Equatorial Guinea experienced rapid economic growth in the early years of the 21st century due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves in 1996. Production peaked in 2004 and has declined since. The country's economic windfall from oil production resulted in massive increases in government revenue, a significant portion of which was designated for the development of infrastructure. Systemic corruption, however, has hindered socio-economic development and there have been limited improvements in the population's living standards. Equatorial Guinea continues to seek to diversify its economy, increase foreign investment, and assume a greater role in regional and international affairs. 

 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates

2 00 N, 10 00 E

Area

total: 28,051 sq km

land: 28,051 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 145

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 528 km

border countries (2): Cameroon 183 km; Gabon 345 km

Coastline

296 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain

coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation

highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 577 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay

Land use

agricultural land: 10.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 3.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 57.5% (2018 est.)

other: 32.4% (2018 est.)

Population distribution

only two large cities over 30,000 people (Bata on the mainland, and the capital Malabo on the island of Bioko); small communities are scattered throughout the mainland and the five inhabited islands as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

violent windstorms; flash floods

volcanism: Santa Isabel (3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea

Geography - note

insular and continental regions widely separated; despite its name, no part of the Equator passes through Equatorial Guinea; the mainland part of the country is located just north of the Equator

People and Society

Population

1,737,695 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 154

Nationality

noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)

adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups

Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Ndowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes Fang, Bubi, Portuguese (official), French (official), Portuguese-based Creoles spoken in Ano Bom) 32.4% (1994 est.)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Spanish audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 88%, Protestant 5%, Muslim 2%, other 5% (animist, Baha'i, Jewish) (2015 est.)

Demographic profile

Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. Despite a boom in oil production in the 1990s, authoritarianism, corruption, and resource mismanagement have concentrated the benefits among a small elite. These practices have perpetuated income inequality and unbalanced development, such as low public spending on education and health care. Unemployment remains problematic because the oil-dominated economy employs a small labor force dependent on skilled foreign workers. The agricultural sector, Equatorial Guinea’s main employer, continues to deteriorate because of a lack of investment and the migration of rural workers to urban areas. About two-thirds of the population lives below the poverty line as of 2020.

Equatorial Guinea’s large and growing youth population – about 60% are under the age of 25 as of 2022 – is particularly affected because job creation in the non-oil sectors is limited, and young people often do not have the skills needed in the labor market. Equatorial Guinean children frequently enter school late, have poor attendance, and have high dropout rates. Thousands of Equatorial Guineans fled across the border to Gabon in the 1970s to escape the dictatorship of Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA; smaller numbers have followed in the decades since. Continued inequitable economic growth and high youth unemployment increases the likelihood of ethnic and regional violence.

Age structure

0-14 years: 36.05% (male 323,846/female 302,666)

15-64 years: 59.01% (male 561,260/female 464,130)

65 years and over: 4.94% (2023 est.) (male 44,561/female 41,232)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 72.2

youth dependency ratio: 66.7

elderly dependency ratio: 5.4

potential support ratio: 18.5 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 20.3 years (2020)

male: 19.9 years

female: 20.7 years

comparison ranking: total 193

Population growth rate

3.36% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 5

Birth rate

29.46 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Death rate

8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Net migration rate

13.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 5

Population distribution

only two large cities over 30,000 people (Bata on the mainland, and the capital Malabo on the island of Bioko); small communities are scattered throughout the mainland and the five inhabited islands as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 74.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.62% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

297,000 MALABO (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.21 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female

total population: 1.15 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

212 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 45

Infant mortality rate

total: 77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 83.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 71.77 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 4

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 61.53 years

female: 66.13 years

comparison ranking: total population 208

Total fertility rate

4.19 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 22

Gross reproduction rate

2.06 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 81.7% of population

rural: 32.1% of population

total: 67.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.3% of population

rural: 67.9% of population

total: 32.4% of population (2017 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.8% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 81.2% of population

rural: 63.4% of population

total: 76.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 18.8% of population

rural: 36.6% of population

total: 23.8% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

animal contact diseases: rabies

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8% (2016)

comparison ranking: 156

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 6.11 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.83 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.99 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.05 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 69

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.3%

male: 97.4%

female: 93% (2015)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.3% (2021 est.)

male: 17.1%

female: 19.9%

comparison ranking: total 93

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation (forests are threatened by agricultural expansion, fires, and grazing); desertification; water pollution (tap water is non-potable); wildlife preservation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban

Climate

tropical; always hot, humid

Land use

agricultural land: 10.1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 4.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 3.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 57.5% (2018 est.)

other: 32.4% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 74.4% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 3.62% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

1.52% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 42

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 135

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 25.67 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 5.65 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 11.21 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 198,443 tons (2016 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 20 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

26 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea

local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial (Spanish)/ Republique de Guinee Equatoriale (French)

local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial (Spanish)/ Guinee Equatoriale (French)

former: Spanish Guinea

etymology: the country is named for the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; the "equatorial" refers to the fact that the country lies just north of the Equator

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Malabo; note - Malabo is on the island of Bioko; in 2017, some governmental offices began to move to a new capital of Ciudad de la Paz (formerly referred to as Oyala) on the mainland near Djibloho, but a lack of funds has halted progress on construction 

geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: named after King MALABO (Malabo Lopelo Melaka) (1837–1937), the last king of the Bubi, the ethnic group indigenous to the island of Bioko; the name of the new capital, Ciudad de la Paz, translates to "City of Peace" in Spanish

Administrative divisions

8 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Djibloho, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence

12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution

history: previous 1968, 1973, 1982; approved by referendum 17 November 1991

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by three fourths of the membership in either house of the National Assembly; passage requires three-fourths majority vote by both houses of the Assembly and approval in a referendum if requested by the president; amended several times, last in 2012

Legal system

mixed system of civil and customary law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Equatorial Guinea

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup); First Vice President Teodoro Nguema OBIANG Mangue (since 20 November 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Manuela ROKA Botey (since 1 February 2023); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene (since 23 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Angel MESIE Mibuy (since 5 February 2018); Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY (since 23 June 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and overseen by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 November 2022 (next to be held in 2029); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 95%, other 6.1%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (70 seats statutory, 74 seats for current term; 55 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote, 15 appointed by the president, and 4 ex-officio)

Chamber of Deputies or Camara de los Diputados (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2023 (next to be held in 2028)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 19 January 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; elected seats by party - PDGE 55; composition (including 15 appointed and 2 ex-officio) - men 58, women 16, percent of women 21.6%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 100; composition - men 69, women 31, percent of women 31%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 27%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice - who is also chief of state - and 9 judges  organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor, administrative, and customary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, 2 of whom are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies; note - judges subject to dismissal by the president at any time

subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Center Right Union or UCD [Avelino MOCACHE MEHENGA]
Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres ESONO ONDO]
Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO]
Juntos Podemos (coalition includes CPDS, FDR, UDC)
National Congress of Equatorial Guinea [Agustin MASOKO ABEGUE]
National Democratic Party [Benedicto OBIANG MANGUE]
National Union for Democracy [Thomas MBA MONABANG]
Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo MBA BACALE]
Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ AYECABA]
Social Democratic Coalition Party (PCSD)[Buenaventura MONSUY ASUMU]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, Francophonie, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu EVUNA Andeme (since 23 February 2015)

chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700

FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252

email address and website:
info@egembassydc.com

https://www.egembassydc.com/

consulate(s) general: Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David R. GILMOUR (since 24 May 2022)

embassy: Malabo II Highway (between the Headquarters of Sonagas and the offices of the United Nations), Malabo

mailing address: 2320 Malabo Place, Washington, DC 20521-2520

telephone: [240] 333 09-57-41

email address and website:
Malaboconsular@state.gov

https://gq.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence

National symbol(s)

silk cotton tree; national colors: green, white, red, blue

National anthem

name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)

lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)

note: adopted 1968

Economy

Economic overview

growing CEMAC economy and new OPEC member; large oil and gas reserves; targeting economic diversification and poverty reduction; still recovering from CEMAC crisis; improving public financial management; persistent poverty; hard-hit by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$23.924 billion (2021 est.)
$24.152 billion (2020 est.)
$25.222 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 148

Real GDP growth rate

-0.95% (2021 est.)
-4.24% (2020 est.)
-5.48% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 197

Real GDP per capita

$14,600 (2021 est.)
$15,100 (2020 est.)
$16,200 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 110

GDP (official exchange rate)

$10.634 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.77% (2020 est.)
1.24% (2019 est.)
1.35% (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 71

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 54.6% (2017 est.)

services: 42.9% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 203; industry 6; agriculture 162

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 50% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 21.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 10.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 56.9% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -39% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

sweet potatoes, cassava, roots/tubers nes, plantains, oil palm fruit, bananas, coconuts, coffee, cocoa, eggs

Industries

petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate

-6.46% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 190

Labor force

549,800 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 159

Unemployment rate

9.24% (2021 est.)
9.9% (2020 est.)
8.68% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 77

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.3% (2021 est.)

male: 17.1%

female: 19.9%

comparison ranking: total 93

Budget

revenues: $2.604 billion (2018 est.)

expenditures: $2.535 billion (2018 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 140

Public debt

37.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 143

Taxes and other revenues

7.85% (of GDP) (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 210

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$738 million (2017 est.)
-$1.457 billion (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 130

Exports

$8.776 billion (2019 est.)
$8.914 billion (2018 est.)
$9.94 billion (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 111

Exports - partners

China 34%, India 19%, Spain 11%, United States 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, industrial alcohols, lumber, veneer sheeting (2021)

Imports

$6.245 billion (2019 est.)
$6.129 billion (2018 est.)
$5.708 billion (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 133

Imports - partners

United States 22%, Spain 19%, China 12%, United Kingdom 6%, United Arab Emirates 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

gas turbines, beer, ships, industrial machinery, excavation machinery (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$40.817 million (31 December 2019 est.)
$48.93 million (31 December 2018 est.)
$45.503 million (31 December 2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 193

Debt - external

$1.211 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.074 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 163

Exchange rates

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)
580.657 (2017 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 66.7% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 90.3% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 47% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 349,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 1,002,960,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 183 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 157; transmission/distribution losses 149; imports 143; exports 126; consumption 159

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 89.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 10.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 142,600 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 22,300 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 184,500 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 1.1 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 128

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 163

Refined petroleum products - imports

5,094 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 171

Natural gas

production: 4,569,369,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 1,080,003,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 3,568,030,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 139.007 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

4.528 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 2.409 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 2.119 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 137

Energy consumption per capita

57.596 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 95

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 11,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2021 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 189

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 650,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 170

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom service is forecasted to register a growth of more than 6% during the period of 2022-2026; mobile data is the largest contributor to total service revenue in 2021, followed by mobile voice, fixed broadband, mobile messaging, and fixed voice; the launch of the international submarine cable ACE, which connects 13 West African countries with Europe, will improve international capacity, bringing opportunities to data center providers; 4G network expansion and 4G service promotion will allow consumers and businesses to leverage 4G services (2022)

domestic: fixed-line density is less than 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 39 per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 240; landing points for the ACE, Ceiba-1, and Ceiba-2 submarine cables providing communication from Bata and Malabo, Equatorial Guinea to numerous Western African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

the state maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son (who is the Vice President), 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are generally accessible (2019)

Internet users

total: 864,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 54% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 152

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.1 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 202

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 6 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 15

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 466,435 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 350,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

7 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 170

Airports - with paved runways

6

note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways

1

note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Pipelines

42 km condensate, 5 km condensate/gas, 79 km gas, 71 km oil (2013)

Roadways

total: 2,880 km (2017)

comparison ranking: total 165

Merchant marine

total: 46 (2022)

by type: bulk carrier 1, general cargo 12, oil tanker 7, other 26

comparison ranking: total 122

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bioko Island

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Equatorial Guinea Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Guinea Ecuatorial, FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army)), Navy, Air Force; Gendarmerie (Guardia Civil) (2023)

note: police report to the Ministry of National Security, while gendarmes report to the Ministry of National Defense; police generally are responsible for maintaining law and order in the cities, while gendarmes are responsible for security outside cities and for special events; military personnel also fulfill some police functions in border areas, sensitive sites, and high-traffic areas

Military expenditures

1.1% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 126

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 1,500 active-duty troops; approximately 500 Gendarmerie (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the FAGE is armed with mostly older (typically Soviet-era) and second-hand weapons systems; in recent years, it has sought to modernize its naval inventory with purchases of vessels from several countries, including Bulgaria and Israel; China and Russia have also supplied small amounts of equipment to the FAGE (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 24-month service obligation (2023)

Military - note

the FAGE’s National Guard (Army) has only three small infantry battalions with limited combat capabilities; the country has invested heavily in naval capabilities in recent years to protect its oil installations and combat piracy and crime in the Gulf of Guinea; while the Navy was small, its inventory includes a light frigate and a corvette, as well as several off-shore patrol boats; the Air Force has only a few operational combat aircraft and ground attack-capable helicopters (2023)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Equatorial Guinea-Cameroon: in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation

Equatorial Guinea-Gabon: dispute over Mbane Island and lesser islands in the Corisco Bay submitted to ICJ in 2016

Trafficking in persons

tier rating:

Tier 2 Watch List — Equatorial Guinea does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased anti-trafficking awareness campaigns, as well as finalized and began implementing an updated 2022-2024 national action plan and standard operating procedures on victim protection and care; officials improved internal coordination, trained local leaders and law enforcement officials in trafficking indicators, victim identification, and investigation; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increased anti-trafficking efforts compared with the previous year; officials have never convicted a trafficker under its 2004 anti-trafficking law, did not prosecute traffickers or identify victims during the reporting period, and the law did not criminalize all forms of trafficking; senior government officials allegedly were complicit in trafficking crimes; because the government devoted sufficient resources to a plan that, if implemented, would constitute significant efforts to meet minimum standards, Equatorial Guinea was granted a waiver per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3, and therefore remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year (2022)



trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Equatorial Guinea and Equatoguineans abroad; the majority of trafficking victims are subjected to forced domestic service and commercial sex in cities, particularly in the hospitality and restaurant sector; local and foreign women, including Latin Americans, are exploited in commercial sex domestically, while some Equatoguinean women are sex trafficked in Spain; some children from rural areas have been forced into domestic servitude; children from nearby countries are forced to labor as domestic workers, market workers, vendors, and launderers; individuals recruited from African countries and temporary workers from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela are sometimes exploited in forced labor and sex trafficking; observers report LGBTQI+ youth are often left homeless and stigmatized by family and society, increasing their vulnerability to trafficking (2022)