Country Summary



Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high-quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system.



total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

People and Society


5,614,571 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami


Finnish (official) 86.5%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.6%, other 6.7% (2021 est.)


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.22% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Helsinki

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Petteri ORPO (since 20 June 2023)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

highly industrialized, export-based EU economy and euro user; high per capita GDP; major timber, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries; manageable public debts; rigid labor laws impose higher regulatory burdens

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$275.545 billion (2022 est.)
$270.143 billion (2021 est.)
$262.343 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$49,600 (2022 est.)
$48,800 (2021 est.)
$47,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, rye, pork, poultry, beef


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing


0.28% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.3% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.3% of GDP (2019 est.)


$116.905 billion (2021 est.)
$97.789 billion (2020 est.)
$107.084 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 13%, Sweden 9%, United States 8%, Netherlands 6%, China 6% (2021)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, kaolin coated paper, cars, lumber, stainless steel, wood pulp (2021)


$116.277 billion (2021 est.)
$97.037 billion (2020 est.)
$106.664 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 16%, Sweden 15%, Russia 11%, China 7%, Netherlands 7% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2021)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 14, 2023