Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. Finland joined the EU in 1995 and NATO in April 2023.



total : 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

People and Society


total: 5,626,414

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami


Finnish (official) 85.9%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.7%, other 7.2% (2022 est.)


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

0.2% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Helsinki

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alexander STUBB (since 1 March 2024)
head of government: Prime Minister Petteri ORPO (since 20 June 2023)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

high-income, export-based EU and eurozone economy; major timber, metals, engineering, telecom, and electronics industries; emerging from recession triggered by inflation, weak consumer and export demand, and lower private investment; labor market reform plan to address structural rigidities

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$321.126 billion (2023 est.)
$324.486 billion (2022 est.)
$320.209 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$57,500 (2023 est.)
$58,400 (2022 est.)
$57,800 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, pork, chicken, peas, beef (2022)


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing


$122.953 billion (2023 est.)
$127.706 billion (2022 est.)
$116.762 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 11%, US 10%, Sweden 10%, Netherlands 7%, China 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

paper, refined petroleum, steel, wood pulp, wood (2022)


$124.221 billion (2023 est.)
$134.575 billion (2022 est.)
$116.72 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Sweden 15%, Germany 14%, China 8%, Norway 7%, Netherlands 6% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, refined petroleum, cars, garments, electricity (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Page last updated: Wednesday, July 24, 2024