The statue of Alexander II stands in front of Helsinki Cathedral in Senate Square. The Russian czar introduced a number of reforms during the 19th century - when Finland was still a province of Russia - and is generally well regarded.
Country Flag
Country Map
Special Country Products
Locator Map



Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

64 00 N, 26 00 E


total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km

country comparison to the world: 66

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,563 km

border countries (3): Norway 709 km; Sweden 545 km; Russia 1,309 km


1,250 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes


mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills


highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 164 m

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2018 est.)

other: 19.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

80 sq km (2015)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Saimaa - 1,760 sq km; Paijanne - 1,090 sq km; Inarijarvi - 1,000 sq km; Oulujarvi - 900 sq km; Pielinen - 850 sq km

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated

Natural hazards

severe winters in the north

Geography - note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society


noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami

note: 91.5% of the population has a Finnish background


Finnish (official) 86.5%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.6%, other 6.7% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
World Factbook, korvaamaton perustietolähde. (Finnish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Finnish audio sample:


Lutheran 66.6%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, none 30.6% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.41% (male 467,220/female 447,005)

15-24 years: 10.95% (male 312,179/female 297,717)

25-54 years: 37.37% (male 1,064,326/female 1,017,545)

55-64 years: 13.02% (male 357,687/female 367,610)

65 years and over: 22.26% (male 543,331/female 697,045) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.1

youth dependency ratio: 25

elderly dependency ratio: 37.1

potential support ratio: 2.7 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 42.8 years

male: 41.3 years

female: 44.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Birth rate

10.42 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182

Death rate

10.35 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Net migration rate

2.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated


urban population: 85.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.338 million HELSINKI (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.5 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.13 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.31 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 222

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.76 years

male: 78.86 years

female: 84.79 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Gross reproduction rate

0.85 (2023 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

85.5% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

9.2% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

4.64 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 8.23 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.76 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 1.59 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 1.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.91 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Tobacco use

total: 21.6% (2020 est.)

male: 26.9% (2020 est.)

female: 16.3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0% (2017 est.)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 20 years (2020)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 18.1%

male: 19%

female: 17.1% (2021 est.)


Environment - current issues

limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Dumping-London Protocol, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 5.88 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 45.87 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.46 megatons (2020 est.)


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2018 est.)

other: 19.6% (2018 est.)


urban population: 85.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2.738 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 769,926 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.1% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Saimaa - 1,760 sq km; Paijanne - 1,090 sq km; Inarijarvi - 1,000 sq km; Oulujarvi - 900 sq km; Pielinen - 850 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 400 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 1.417 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 50 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

110 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta (Finnish)/ Republiken Finland (Swedish)

local short form: Suomi (Finnish)/ Finland (Swedish)

etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish helsing, an archaic name for "neck" (hals), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; fors refers to "rapids," so helsing fors meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"

Administrative divisions

19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]


6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)


history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil law system based on the Swedish model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Sanna MARIN (since 10 December 2019)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: 2018: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

2012: Sauli NIINISTO elected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (National Coalition Party) 62.6%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 37.4%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 April 2019 (next to be held in April 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP 20%, PS 19.5%, Kok 19.0%. Center Party 15.5%, Vihr 10%, Vas 8%, SFP 4.5%, KD 2.5%, Aland 0.5%; other 0.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDP 40, PS 39, Kok 38, Centre Party 31, Vihr 20, Vas 16, SFP 9, KD 5; Aland 1; other 1; composition men 109, women 91, percent of women 45.5%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders

Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
Center Party or Kesk [Annika SAARIKKO]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Riikka PURRA]
Green League or Vihr [Maria OHISALO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Sanna MARIN]
Swedish People's Party or RKP or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNSOM, UNTSO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mikko Tapani HAUTALA (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas HICKEY (since 11 May 2022)

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14 B, 00140 Helsinki

mailing address: 5310 Helsinki Place, Washington DC  20521-5310

telephone: [358] (9) 616-250

FAX: [358] (9) 174-681

email address and website:

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 7 (6 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Fortress of Suomenlinna (c); Old Rauma (c); Petäjävesi Old Church (c); Verla Groundwood and Board Mill (c); Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki (c); High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago (n); Struve Geodetic Arc (c)


Economic overview

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.


Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.


Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a strong increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to grow a rate of 2-3% in the next few years.


Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$270.143 billion (2021 est.)

$262.343 billion (2020 est.)

$268.259 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 59

Real GDP growth rate

2.97% (2021 est.)

-2.21% (2020 est.)

1.22% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Real GDP per capita

$48,800 (2021 est.)

$47,400 (2020 est.)

$48,600 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 32

GDP (official exchange rate)

$269.259 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.19% (2021 est.)

0.29% (2020 est.)

1.02% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2016)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2014)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, rye, pork, poultry, beef


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 4%

industry: 20.7%

services: 75.3% (2017 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.53% (2021 est.)

7.76% (2020 est.)

6.69% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 6.7%

highest 10%: 45.2% (2013)


revenues: $134.2 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: $135.6 billion (2017 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting

Public debt

61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 81

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$1.896 billion (2021 est.)

$2.169 billion (2020 est.)

-$879.445 million (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44


$116.905 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$97.789 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$107.084 billion (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Exports - partners

Germany 14%, Sweden 10%, United States 8%, Netherlands 6%, China 6%, Russia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, paper and wood pulp products, cars, stainless steel, lumber (2019)


$116.277 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$97.037 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$106.664 billion (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Imports - partners

Germany 16%, Sweden 14%, Russia 13%, China 6%, Netherlands 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$16.744 billion (31 December 2021 est.)

$13.48 billion (31 December 2020 est.)

$11.427 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Debt - external

$631.549 billion (2019 est.)

$536.301 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.845 (2021 est.)

0.876 (2020 est.)

0.893 (2019 est.)

0.847 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


installed generating capacity: 20.418 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 79.356 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 6.666 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 21.615 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.574 billion kWh (2020 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 33.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 11.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 23.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 17.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 762,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 3.552 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 101,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 2.661 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 8,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 207,400 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 232,400 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 2.393 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 181.143 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2.569 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

41.996 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 9.377 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 27.737 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.882 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 225,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.12 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Finland’s telecom market is among the more progressive in Europe, with operators having been at the forefront in deploying technologies and with the regulator being among the first to auction spectrum for 5G use; these efforts have been supported by the government which is working towards its target of providing a broadband service of at least 100Mb/s by 2025; 5G services were available to more than 40% of the population by early 2021, and take-up among subscribers has been strong although most will remain with LTE in the short term; the country enjoys one of the highest broadband and mobile subscription rates in the region, with customers able to make use of the latest iterations of technologies including DOCSIS3.1, LTE-A, 5G, and GPON fiber infrastructure; Finland has emerged as one of the pioneers in 5G; the auction of spectrum in the 700MHz and 3.5GHh bands has enabled network operators to extend the availability of LTE services nationally and to prepare for 5G services; Spectrum in the 2.5GHz band was auctioned in mid-2020 and has since enabled the MNOs to widen their 5G footprint considerably; there is an ongoing shift away from DSL to fiber and mobile networks (2021)

domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 subscriptions and nearly 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2020)

international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables that provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio

Internet country code



note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet users

total: 5,087,180 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 92% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1.846 million (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 77

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 13,364,839 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 957.64 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 74

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 21

under 914 m: 14 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 74

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 71 (2021)


1,288 km gas transmission pipes, 1,976 km distribution pipes (2016)


total: 5,918 km (2020) 3,349 km electrified

country comparison to the world: 33


total: 454,000 km (2012)

highways: 78,000 km (2012) (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved)

private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)

urban: 26,000 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 17


8,000 km (2013) (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways

country comparison to the world: 19

Merchant marine

total: 272

by type: bulk carrier 9, container ship 1, general cargo 74, oil tanker 4, other 184 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 57

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma

LNG terminal(s) (import): Hamina, Inkoo (operational 2023), Pori, Tornio Manga

Transportation - note

Finland operates icebreakers in the Baltic Sea including seven PC 3 or 4 class medium icebreakers and two PC 5 or 6 class light icebreakers
note - PC indicates a Polar Class vessel: PC 3 - year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multi-year ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 2.5 m); PC 4 - year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 120 cm); PC 5 - year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 70-120 cm); PC 6 - summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions (ice thickness up to 30-70 cm)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Maavoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat); Ministry of the Interior: Border Guard (Rajavartiolaitos) (2022)

note: the Border Guard becomes part of the FDF in wartime

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2021 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2020)

1.4% of GDP (2019) (approximately $4.18 billion)

1.4% of GDP (2018) (approximately $4.02 billion)

1.3% of GDP (2017) (approximately $3.8 billion)

country comparison to the world: 61

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 22,000 active duty personnel (15,000 Army; 4,000 Navy; 3,000 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists of a wide mix of mostly modern US, European, and domestically-produced weapons systems; since 2010, the US has been the leading supplier; the Finnish defense industry produces a variety of military equipment, including wheeled armored vehicles and naval vessels (2022)

Military service age and obligation

at age 18, all Finnish men are obligated to serve 5.5-12 months of service within a branch of the military or the Border Guard (length of service depends on the type of duty), and women 18-29 may volunteer for service; there is also an option to perform non-military service which lasts for 8.5 or 11.5 months; after completing their initial conscript obligation, individuals enter the reserves and remain eligible for mobilization until the age of 50 for rank-and-file and 60 for non-commissioned and commissioned officers (2022)

note 1: the military trains approximately 21,000 (20,000 Army) conscripts each year; as of 2019, women made up about 4% of the military's full-time personnel

note 2: Finland has had conscription since 1951

Military deployments

160 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (May 2022)

Military - note

Finland is not a member of NATO, but Finland and NATO have actively cooperated in peace-support operations, exercised together, and exchanged analysis and information; Finland joined NATO’s Partnership for Peace program in 1994; Finnish Armed Forces participated in NATO-led military operations and missions in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq; Finland applied for NATO membership in May 2022

Finland is a signatory of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) and actively participates in CSDP crisis management missions and operations

the Finnish Armed Forces closely cooperate with the militaries of other Nordic countries through the Nordic Defense Cooperation (NORDEFCO), which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden; areas of cooperation include armaments, education, human resources, training and exercises, and operations; NORDEFCO was established in 2009 (2022)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 9,175 (Iraq) (mid-year 2022); 47,067 (Ukraine) (as of 16 January 2023)

stateless persons: 3,416 (mid-year 2021)