Photos of Finland

Introduction

Background

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

64 00 N, 26 00 E

Area

total: 338,145 sq km

land: 303,815 sq km

water: 34,330 sq km

country comparison to the world: 66

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 2,563 km

border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1309 km

Coastline

1,250 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia

Climate

cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain

mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation

mean elevation: 164 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5% (2018 est.)

arable land: 7.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 72.9% (2018 est.)

other: 19.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

690 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated

Natural hazards

severe winters in the north

Environment - current issues

limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finn, Swede, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami

Languages

Finnish (official) 87.6%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.8% (2018 est.)

Religions

Lutheran 69.8%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2018 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.41% (male 467,220/female 447,005)

15-24 years: 10.95% (male 312,179/female 297,717)

25-54 years: 37.37% (male 1,064,326/female 1,017,545)

55-64 years: 13.02% (male 357,687/female 367,610)

65 years and over: 22.26% (male 543,331/female 697,045) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.4

youth dependency ratio: 25.8

elderly dependency ratio: 36.6

potential support ratio: 2.7 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 42.8 years

male: 41.3 years

female: 44.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Birth rate

10.49 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Death rate

10.33 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Net migration rate

2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated

Urbanization

urban population: 85.5% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.317 million HELSINKI (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.2 years (2017 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.15 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.33 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 222

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.55 years

male: 78.63 years

female: 84.6 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Contraceptive prevalence rate

85.5% (2015)

note: percent of women aged 18-49

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

3.81 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

3.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 20 years

female: 20 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 17%

male: 17.3%

female: 16.8% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland

conventional short form: Finland

local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland

local short form: Suomi/Finland

etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Helsinki

geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish "helsing," an archaic name for "neck" ("hals"), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; "fors" refers to "rapids," so "helsing fors" meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"

Administrative divisions

19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]

Independence

6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution

history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012

Legal system

civil law system based on the Swedish model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Sanna MARIN (since 10 December 2019)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament 

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms) (e.g. 2019)

elections: last held on 14 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023) (e.g. 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP 17.7%, Finn Party 17.5%, Kok 17.0%. Centre Party  13.8%, Green League 11.5%, Left Alliance 8.2%; seats by party/coalition -SDP 40, Finn Party 39, Kok 38, Centre Party 31, Green League 20, Left Alliance 16; composition men 107, women 93, percent of women 46.5% (e.g. 2019)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders

Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
Center Party or Kesk [Katri KULMUNI]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO]
Green League or Vihr [Pekka HAAVISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mikko Tapani HAUTALA (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800

FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert "Bob" Frank PENCE (since 24 May 2018)

telephone: [358] (9) 6162-50

embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki

mailing address: APO AE 09723

FAX: [358] (9) 6162-5135

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

Economy

Economic overview

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a strong increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to grow a rate of 2-3% in the next few years.

Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

Real GDP growth rate

1.15% (2019 est.)

1.52% (2018 est.)

3.27% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AA+ (2016)

Moody's rating: Aa1 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: AA+ (2014)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$268.662 billion (2019 est.)

$265.619 billion (2018 est.)

$261.649 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 60

GDP (official exchange rate)

$269.259 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$48,668 (2019 est.)

$48,159 (2018 est.)

$47,502 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 33

Gross national saving

24.1% of GDP (2019 est.)

23.5% of GDP (2018 est.)

23% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 69.1% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, sugar beet, rye, pork, poultry, beef

Industries

metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 4%

industry: 20.7%

services: 75.3% (2017 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 6.7%

highest 10%: 45.2% (2013)

Budget

revenues: 134.2 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 135.6 billion (2017 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting

Public debt

61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 72

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$603 million (2019 est.)

-$4.908 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Exports

$119.887 billion (2019 est.)

$111.339 billion (2018 est.)

$109.513 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Exports - partners

Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)

Exports - commodities

electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Imports

$120.437 billion (2019 est.)

$116.628 billion (2018 est.)

$110.701 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Imports - partners

Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%, Netherlands 8.7% (2017)

Imports - commodities

foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$10.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$11.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Debt - external

$631.549 billion (2019 est.)

$536.301 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.82771 (2020 est.)

0.90338 (2019 est.)

0.87789 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Natural gas - proved reserves

NA cu m (1 January 2016 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 269,980

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4.86 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7,179,481

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129.24 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies; subscribers are migrating from 3G to LTE and 5G networks; astute regulatory measures have encouraged market competition and company investment (2020)

domestic: fixed-line 5 per 100 subscription and 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2019)

international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables that provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio

Internet country code

.fi

 

note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet users

total: 4,922,163

percent of population: 88.89% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1.737 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 77

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 13,364,839 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 957.64 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 74 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 21 (2017)

under 914 m: 14 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 74 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

under 914 m: 71 (2013)

Pipelines

1288 km gas transmission pipes, 1976 km distribution pipes (2016)

Railways

total: 5,926 km (2016)

broad gauge: 5,926 km 1.524-m gauge (3,270 km electrified) (2016)

country comparison to the world: 32

Roadways

total: 454,000 km (2012)

highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved) (2012)

private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)

urban: 26,000 km (2012)

country comparison to the world: 16

Waterways

8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)

country comparison to the world: 17

Merchant marine

total: 274

by type: bulk carrier 9, container ship 1, general cargo 77, oil tanker 4, other 183 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 57

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Maavoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat); Ministry of the Interior: Border Guard (Rajavartiolaitos) (2019)

note: the Border Guard becomes part of the FDF in wartime

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2019)

1.4% of GDP (2018)

1.4% of GDP (2017)

1.4% of GDP (2016)

1.5% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 81

Military and security service personnel strengths

estimates for the size of the Finnish Defense Forces (FDF) vary; approximately 23,000 total active duty personnel (16,000 Army; 4,000 Navy; 3,000 Air Force) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Finnish Defense Forces consists of a wide mix of mostly modern Western and domestically-produced weapons systems, as well as a limited quantity of Soviet-era equipment, particularly artillery and armored personnel carriers; since 2010, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the US are the leading foreign suppliers of armaments to Finland; the Finish defense industry produces a variety of military equipment, including wheeled armored vehicles and naval vessels (2019 est.)

Military deployments

200 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2020)

Military service age and obligation

at age 18, all Finnish men are obligated to serve 6-12 months of service within a branch of the military or the Border Guard, and women may volunteer for service; after completing their initial conscript obligation, individuals enter the reserves and remain eligible for mobilization until the age of 60 (2019)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 8,862 (Iraq) (2019)

stateless persons: 2,801 (2019)