Country Summary



As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. Divided after World War II, the decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German reunification in 1990.



total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km


temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

Natural resources

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

People and Society


84,220,184 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

German 86.3%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, Romanian 1%, other/stateless/unspecified 8.9% (2020 est.)


German (official); note - Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 23.7%, Muslim 3.6%, other 4.8%, none 41.9% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.12% (2023 est.)


Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Berlin

Executive branch

chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Olaf SCHOLZ (since 8 December 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats statutory, 71 current; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (736 seats statutory, 736 for the 2021-25 term - total seats can vary each electoral term; currently includes 4 seats for independent members; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members' terms depend upon the states they represent)


Economic overview

leading EU service-based export-driven economy; highly skilled and educated labor force; fairly fiscally conservative; energy-related economic disruptions due to Russian gas cessations; increased defense spending and rising debts

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.424 trillion (2021 est.)
$4.311 trillion (2020 est.)
$4.477 trillion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$53,200 (2021 est.)
$51,800 (2020 est.)
$53,900 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, pork, wheat, beef, potatoes, barley, rapeseeds, chicken, eggs, sugar beets


automotive, mechanical engineering, chemicals, electrical and batteries, manufacturing, metals, finance and banking, telecommunications, healthcare, retail


0.48% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.5% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.48% of GDP (2019 est.)


$2.004 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.676 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.816 trillion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 9%, China 8%, France 8%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 6% (2021)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, medical cultures and vaccines, aircraft, industrial machinery, medical instruments (2021)


$1.775 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.454 trillion (2020 est.)
$1.595 trillion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 10%, Netherlands 10%, Poland 7%, Italy 6%, France 6% (2021)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, medical cultures/vaccines, packaged medicines, crude petroleum, natural gas, computers (2021)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, September 19, 2023