Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



As Europe's largest economy and second most-populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. Divided after World War II, Germany reunified in 1990 when the USSR collapsed and the Cold War ended.



total: 357,022 sq km
land: 348,672 sq km
water: 8,350 sq km


temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

Natural resources

coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

People and Society


total: 84,119,100
male: 41,572,702
female: 42,546,398 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

German 85.4%, Turkish 1.8%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Syrian 1.1%, Romanian 1%, Poland 1%, other/stateless/unspecified 8.3% (2022 est.)


German (official); note - Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


Roman Catholic 24.8%, Protestant 22.6%, Muslim 3.7%, other 5.1%, none 43.8% (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.12% (2024 est.)


Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Berlin

Executive branch

chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Olaf SCHOLZ (since 8 December 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats statutory, 71 current; members appointed by each of the 16 state governments)
Federal Diet or Bundestag (736 seats statutory, 736 for the 2021-25 term - total seats can vary each electoral term; currently includes 4 seats for independent members; approximately one-half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one-half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members' terms depend upon the states they represent)


Economic overview

leading diversified, export-driven, core EU and eurozone economy; key automotive, chemical, engineering, finance, and green energy industries; growth stalled by energy crisis; tight labor market with falling working-age population; fiscal rebalancing with phaseout of energy price supports

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.523 trillion (2022 est.)
$4.442 trillion (2021 est.)
$4.306 trillion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$54,000 (2022 est.)
$53,400 (2021 est.)
$51,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, sugar beets, wheat, barley, potatoes, pork, rapeseed, maize, rye, triticale (2022)


iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles


$2.06 trillion (2022 est.)
$2.021 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.692 trillion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 10%, France 7%, China 7%, Netherlands 7%, Italy 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

cars, packaged medicine, vehicle parts/accessories, vaccines, plastic products (2022)


$1.973 trillion (2022 est.)
$1.785 trillion (2021 est.)
$1.464 trillion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 10%, Netherlands 9%, Poland 6%, Belgium 6%, Italy 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

natural gas, cars, garments, vehicle parts/accessories, crude petroleum (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, July 17, 2024