Gibraltar

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Strategically important, Gibraltar was ceded to Great Britain by Spain in 1713. The British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency.

Geography

Area

total: 7 sq km

land: 6.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Climate

Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Natural resources

none

People and Society

Population

29,573 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Gibraltarian 79%, other British 13.2%, Spanish 2.1%, Moroccan 1.6%, other EU 2.4%, other 1.6% (2012 est.)

Languages

English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

Religions

Roman Catholic 72.1%, Church of England 7.7%, other Christian 3.8%, Muslim 3.6%, Jewish 2.4%, Hindu 2%, other 1.1%, none 7.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2012 est.)

Population growth rate

0.19% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK

Capital

name: Gibraltar

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir David STEEL (since 11 June 2020)

head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

British territorial high-income economy; Brexit caused significant economic disruption to longstanding financial services, shipping, and tourism industries; ongoing negotiations to rejoin EU Schengen Area; independent taxation authority

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.044 billion (2014 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$61,700 (2014 est.)

Agricultural products

none

Industries

tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco

Exports

$202.3 million (2014 est.)

Exports - partners

Poland 31%, Netherlands 27%, France 11%, Germany 8%, United States 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars, ships, refined petroleum, fish, recreational boats (2019)

Imports

$2.967 billion (2004 est.)

Imports - partners

Spain 19%, US 12%, India 12%, Italy 12%, Netherlands 11%, United Kingdom 7%, Greece 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, recreational boats, cars, coal tar oil, crude petroleum (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022