Haiti

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island of Hispaniola, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti continues to experience bouts of political instability.

Geography

Area

total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

People and Society

Population

11,334,637 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%

Languages

French (official), Creole (official)

Religions

Catholic 55%, Protestant 29%, Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

1.2% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Port-au-Prince

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant); note - Prime Minister Ariel HENRY assumed executive responsibilities, including naming Cabinet members, following the assassination President MOISE on 7 July 2021; new elections have not yet been scheduled.

head of government: Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or le Corps legislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
le Sénat de la République or Senate (30 seats; 10 filled as of March 2022); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
la Chambre des députés or Chamber of Deputies (119 seats; 0 filled as of March 2022; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblée nationale or the National Assembly and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

Economy

Economic overview

small Caribbean island economy and OECS-member state; extreme poverty; enormous income inequalities; destabilization due to recent presidential assassination; US preferential market access; deteriorating human capital and infrastructure investments

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$31.62 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, yams, avocados, maize, rice, vegetables

Industries

textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Exports

$1.73 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 81%, Canada 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

clothing and apparel, eels, essential oils, perfumes, mangoes, cocoa beans (2019)

Imports

$5.21 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 39%, China 22%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, clothing and apparel, palm oil, poultry meats (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022