Photos of Haiti

Introduction

Background

The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Christopher COLUMBUS first landed on it in 1492 - were virtually wiped out by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans and environmentally degrading practices. In the late 18th century, Toussaint L'OUVERTURE led a revolution of Haiti's nearly half a million slaves that ended France's rule on the island. After a prolonged struggle, and under the leadership of Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, Haiti became the first country in the world led by former slaves after declaring its independence in 1804, but it was forced to pay an indemnity of 100 million francs (equivalent to $22 billion USD in March 2023) to France for more than a century and was shunned by other countries for nearly 40 years. On 12 July 1862, the US officially recognized Haiti, but foreign economic influence and internal political instability induced the US to occupy Haiti from 1915-1934. Subsequently, Francois "Papa Doc" DUVALIER and then his son Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" DUVALIER led repressive and corrupt regimes that ruled Haiti in 1957-1971 and 1971-1986, respectively. President Jovenel MOISE was assassinated on 7 July 2021, leading the country further into an extra-constitutional governance structure and contributing to the country’s growing fragility. On 20 July 2021, the Government of Haiti installed Ariel HENRY - whom President MOISE had nominated shortly before his death - as prime minister. As of March 2023, Haiti had no sitting elected officials. The country has long been plagued by natural disasters. In January 2010, a major 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. A 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Haiti’s southern peninsula in August 2021, causing well over 2,000 deaths; an estimated 500,000 required emergency humanitarian aid. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, as well as one of the most unequal in wealth distribution.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

comparison ranking: total 147

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 376 km

border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km

Coastline

1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain

mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation

highest point: Pic la Selle 2,674 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 470 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

800 sq km (2013)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Geography - note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic); it is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean

People and Society

Population

11,470,261 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 83

Nationality

noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%

Languages

French (official), Creole (official)

major-language sample(s): The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, sous endispansab pou enfomasyon debaz. (Haitian Creole)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:

Religions

Catholic 55%, Protestant 29%, Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10% (2018 est.)

note: 50-80% of Haitians incorporate some elements of Vodou culture or practice in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; Vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Age structure

0-14 years: 29.68% (male 1,695,357/female 1,709,344)

15-64 years: 65.76% (male 3,733,899/female 3,808,453)

65 years and over: 4.56% (2023 est.) (male 228,800/female 294,408)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.3

youth dependency ratio: 51.2

elderly dependency ratio: 7.1

potential support ratio: 14.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 24.1 years

male: 23.8 years

female: 24.3 years (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 169

Population growth rate

1.18% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 77

Birth rate

20.81 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 64

Death rate

7.17 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 114

Net migration rate

-1.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 169

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Urbanization

urban population: 59.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

2.987 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2016/7 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

350 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 27

Infant mortality rate

total: 38.78 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 44.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 33.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total 32

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 66.3 years

male: 63.6 years

female: 69.04 years (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: total population 198

Total fertility rate

2.39 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 72

Gross reproduction rate

1.19 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 91.9% of population

rural: 56.1% of population

total: 76.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.1% of population

rural: 43.9% of population

total: 23.5% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 82.9% of population

rural: 42.6% of population

total: 65.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 17.1% of population

rural: 57.4% of population

total: 34.4% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.7% (2016)

comparison ranking: 72

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 2.85 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.55 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.03 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 2.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 118

Tobacco use

total: 7.7% (2020 est.)

male: 12.2% (2020 est.)

female: 3.1% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 152

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

9.5% (2016/17)

comparison ranking: 60

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2.1%

women married by age 18: 14.9%

men married by age 18: 1.6% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 192

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.7%

male: 65.3%

female: 58.3% (2016)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 35.7%

male: 28.1%

female: 45.6% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 24

Environment

Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 59.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to high food prices, natural disasters, and worsening civil insecurity - about 4.9 million people are estimated to face severe acute food insecurity and were in need of urgent food assistance between March and June 2023; the high levels of food insecurity are the result of sustained economic downturn, reducing domestic food production, elevated food prices, fuel shortage and frequent natural disasters; the situation is exacerbated by worsening insecurity, which has limited access to essential services, including markets, caused population displacements and hampered delivery of humanitarian assistance (2023)

Revenue from forest resources

0.68% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 60

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 78

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.63 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.98 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.12 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,309,852 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 190 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 50 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 1.21 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.02 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti (French)/ Repiblik d Ayiti (Haitian Creole)

local short form: Haiti (French)/ Ayiti (Haitian Creole)

etymology: the native Taino name means "Land of High Mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Port-au-Prince

geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: according to tradition, in 1706, a Captain de Saint-Andre named the bay and its surrounding area after his ship Le Prince; the name of the town that grew there means, "the Port of The Prince"

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence

1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution

history: many previous; latest adopted 10 March 1987, with substantial revisions in June 2012; note – the constitution is commonly referred to as the “amended 1987 constitution”

amendments: proposed by the executive branch or by either the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies; consideration of proposed amendments requires support by at least two-thirds majority of both houses; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the membership present and at least two-thirds majority of the votes cast; approved amendments enter into force after installation of the next president of the republic; constitutional articles on the democratic and republican form of government cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2012

Legal system

civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant); note - Prime Minister Ariel HENRY assumed executive responsibilities, including naming Cabinet members, following the assassination of President MOISE on 7 July 2021; new elections have not yet been scheduled

head of government: Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election had been originally scheduled for 9 October 2016 but was postponed until 20 November 2016 due to Hurricane Matthew

election results:
2016: Jovenel MOISE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%

2011: Michel MARTELLY elected president in second round; percent of vote - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or le Corps legislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
Senate or le Sénat de la République (30 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des députés (119 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as the National Assembly or L'Assemblée nationale and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

elections:
Senate - last held on 20 November 2016 with runoff on 29 January 2017 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019 but postponed until political and civil society actors agree to a consensual process)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with runoff on 25 October 2015 and 20 November 2016 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019 but postponed until political and civil society actors agree to a consensual process)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 10, women 0, percent of women 0%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA

note: the Senate and Chamber of Deputies as of January 2023 was not functional

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de cassation (currently 11 of 12 judges as prescribed by the constitution, 8 of whom were appointed in March 2023); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice; Constitutional Court, called for in the 1987 constitution but not yet established; High Court of Justice, for trying high government officials - currently not functional

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of Haiti's constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrate's courts; land, labor, and children's courts

note: the Superior Council of the Judiciary or Conseil Superieur du Pouvoir Judiciaire is a 9-member body charged with the administration and oversight of the judicial branch of government

Political parties and leaders

Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Emancipation (Ligue Alternative pour le Progres et l’Emancipation Haitienne) or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH or Mochrenha [Luc MESADIEU]
Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Jean Chavannes JEUNE]
Combat of Peasant Workers to Liberate Haiti (Konbit Travaye Peyizan Pou Libere Ayiti) or Kontra Pep La [Jean William JEANTY]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic and Popular Sector (Secteur Democratique et Populaire) or SDP [Nenel CASSY, Andre MICHEL, and Marjorie MICHEL]
Democratic Unity Convention (Konvansyon Inite Demokratik) or KID [Enold JOSEPH]
Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Maryse NARCISSE and former President Jean Bertrand ARISTIDE]
Forward (En Avant) [Jerry TARDIEU]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats (Fusion Des Sociaux-Démocrates Haïtiens) or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
G18 Policy Platform (Plateforme Politique G18) [Joseph WUILSON]
Haiti in Action (Ayiti An Aksyon Haiti's Action) or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party (Parti Haitien Tet Kale) or PHTK [Line Sainphaar BALTHAZAR]
Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Lod Demokratik [Jean Renel SENATUS]
Love Haiti (Renmen Ayiti) or RA [Jean Henry CEANT]
MTV Ayiti [Reginald BOULOS]
National Consortium of Haitian Political Parties (Consortium National des Partis Politiques Haitiens) or CNPPH [Jeantel JOSEPH]
National Shield Network (Reseau Bouclier National) [Victor PROPHANE and Garry BODEAU]
Organization of the People's Struggle (Oganizasyon Pep Kap Lite) or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]
Patriotic Unity (Inite Patriyotik) or Inite [Sorel YACINTHE and Levaillant Louis JEUNE]
Platform Pitit Desalin (Politik Pitit Dessalines) or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Political Party for Us All or Bridge (Pont) or Pou Nou Tout [Jean Marie CHERESTAL]
Popular Patriotic Dessalinien Movement (Mouvement Patriotique Populaire Dessalinien) or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Rally of Progressive National Democrats (Rassemblement des Democrates Nationaux Progressistes) or RDNP [Eric JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Respe (Respect) [Charles Henry BAKER]
Women and Families Political Parties (Defile Pati Politik Fanm Ak Fanmi) [Marie Rebecca GUILLAUME]

International organization participation

ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Louis Harold JOSEPH (since 15 May 2023)

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

email address and website:
amb.washington@diplomatie.ht

https://www.haiti.org/

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eric William STROMAYER (since 3 July 2022)


embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince

mailing address: 3400 Port-au-Prince Place, Washington, DC 20521-3400

telephone: [011] (509) 2229-8000

FAX: [011] (509) 2229-8027

email address and website:
acspap@state.gov

https://ht.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes

National symbol(s)

Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red

National anthem

name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)

lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers

Economy

Economic overview

small Caribbean island economy and OECS-member state; extreme poverty and inflation; enormous income inequality; ongoing civil unrest due to recent presidential assassination; US preferential market access; very open to foreign direct investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.856 billion (2021 est.)
$33.458 billion (2020 est.)
$34.615 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 135

Real GDP growth rate

-1.8% (2021 est.)
-3.34% (2020 est.)
-1.68% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 202

Real GDP per capita

$2,900 (2021 est.)
$3,000 (2020 est.)
$3,100 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 197

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.608 billion (2017 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

16.84% (2021 est.)
22.8% (2020 est.)
18.7% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)

services: 57.6% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 138; industry 146; agriculture 41

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 99.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -60.3% (2017 est.)

note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, yams, avocados, maize, rice, vegetables

Industries

textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Industrial production growth rate

-2.48% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Labor force

5.01 million (2021 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant

comparison ranking: 84

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 38.1%

industry: 11.5%

services: 50.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate

15.73% (2021 est.)
15.45% (2020 est.)
13.91% (2019 est.)

note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

comparison ranking: 33

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 35.7%

male: 28.1%

female: 45.6% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 24

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)

Budget

revenues: $1.179 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $1.527 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 80

Public debt

31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 170

Taxes and other revenues

18.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 110

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

$141.371 million (2021 est.)
$216.157 million (2020 est.)
-$168.76 million (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 65

Exports

$1.241 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.014 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.733 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 171

Exports - partners

United States 83%, Canada 4%, Mexico 3%, India 1%, Hong Kong 1% (2021)

Exports - commodities

clothing and apparel, essential oils, eels, mangoes, scrap iron (2021)

Imports

$5.222 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.206 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$5.161 billion (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Imports - partners

United States 26%, Dominican Republic 23%, China 19%, Turkey 3%, Indonesia 3% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, clothing and apparel, poultry, palm oil (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.759 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$2.59 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$2.355 billion (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Debt - external

$2.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$2.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 146

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
89.227 (2021 est.)
93.51 (2020 est.)
88.815 (2019 est.)
68.032 (2018 est.)
64.77 (2017 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 7 million (2020)

electrification - total population: 47.1% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 81.8% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 3% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 3.453 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 339 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 643 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: installed generating capacity 103; transmission/distribution losses 123; imports 121; exports 101; consumption 178

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 85.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 13.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 21,100 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 153

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 170

Refined petroleum products - imports

20,030 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 3.341 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 3.341 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

3.139 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 3.137 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 2,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 148

Energy consumption per capita

3.97 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 175

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 6,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (2021 est.) less than 1

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 204

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 7.3 million (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 64 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 106

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Haiti is in desperate need of maintaining effective communication services to enable it to keep going through the countless natural disasters, the country’s telecoms sector is really only surviving on the back of international goodwill to repair and replace the systems destroyed in the latest upheaval; Haiti’s fixed-line infrastructure is now practically non-existent, having been torn apart by Hurricane Matthew in 2016; what aid and additional investment has been forthcoming has been directed towards mobile solutions; over half of the country can afford a mobile handset or the cost of a monthly subscription; and mobile broadband subscriptions is half of that again – an estimated 28% in 2022; international aid continues to flow in to try and help the country’s telecoms sector recover – the World Bank has released a further $120 million to go on top of the $60 million grant provided after the last major 7.2 earthquake in August 2021 (2022)

domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 64 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

per 2019 data released by Haitian telecommunications regulator CONATEL (Conseil National des Télécommunications), there are 398 legal sound broadcasting stations on the territory, including about 60 community radio stations, and 7 radio stations on the AM band; the FM band in Haiti is oversaturated by 158 percent; most radio stations broadcast 17 to 19 hours a day; there are 105 television stations operating in Haiti, including 36 TV stations in Port- au- Prince, 41 others in the provinces, and more than 40 radio-television stations; a large number of broadcasting stations operate irregularly and some stations operate with technical parameters that do not comply with established standards, thus causing harmful interference to existing telecommunications systems; VOA Creole Service broadcasts daily on 30 affiliate stations

(2019)

Internet users

total: 4.29 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 39% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 107

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 31,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.3 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 152

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

Airports

14 (2021)

comparison ranking: total 149

Airports - with paved runways

4

note: paved runways have a concrete or asphalt surface but not all have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control; the length of a runway required for aircraft to safely operate depends on a number of factors including the type of aircraft, the takeoff weight (including passengers, cargo, and fuel), engine types, flap settings, landing speed, elevation of the airport, and average maximum daily air temperature; paved runways can reach a length of 5,000 m (16,000 ft.), but the “typical” length of a commercial airline runway is between 2,500-4,000 m (8,000-13,000 ft.)

Airports - with unpaved runways

10

note: unpaved runways have a surface composition such as grass or packed earth and are most suited to the operation of light aircraft; unpaved runways are usually short, often less than 1,000 m (3,280 ft.) in length; airports with unpaved runways often lack facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control

Roadways

total: 4,102 km (2011)

paved: 600 km (2011)

unpaved: 3,502 km (2011)

comparison ranking: total 153

Merchant marine

total: 4

by type: general cargo 3, other 1 (2022)

comparison ranking: total 167

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH), disbanded in 1995, began to be reconstituted in 2017; it established an Army command in 2018

Ministry of Justice and Public Security: Haitian National Police (Police Nationale d'Haïti or PNH) (2023)

note: the PNH is responsible for maintaining public security; it includes police, corrections, fire, emergency response, airport security, port security, and coast guard functions; its units include a presidential guard and a paramilitary rapid-response Motorized Intervention Unit or BIM 

 

Military and security service personnel strengths

up to 2,000 military troops (the force is planned to eventually have around 5,000 personnel); estimates for the National Police range from a low of 9,000 to a high of about 13,000 (2023)

Military - note

Haiti's military was disbanded in 1995 after it participated in multiple coups and was accused of other political interference and human rights violations; the military was reinstated by former President MOISE in 2017 after the UN ended its peacekeeping operation in Haiti; the reconstituted military established an Army command in 2018 and has received training assistance from Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, and Mexico; the military’s stated mission is to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and combating transnational crime; in 2023, Prime Minister HENRY called upon the military to assist the National Police (PNH) in combating armed gangs, which have overwhelmed the PNH, killed hundreds of Haitians, and seized control of much of the capital Port-au-Prince since the assassination of President MOISE in 2021; in 2023, an estimated 200 armed gangs were operating in Haiti

the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) operated in Haiti from 2004 until 2017; its mission was to help restore stability after President Bertrand ARISTIDE fled the country, including assisting with the political process, strengthening government institutions, and promoting and protecting human rights; following the completion of MINUSTAH’s mandate in 2017, a smaller peacekeeping mission, the UN Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), operated until 2019; its mission was to assist with the further development and strengthening of the national police, as well as Haiti’s justice and prison systems, and to promote and protect human rights; in 2019, the UN established the UN Integrated Office in Haiti (BINUH) with the political mission of advising the Haiti Government in elections, governance, and security; BINUH's current mandate last until July 2023 (2023)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reported one incident in the territorial waters of Haiti in 2022, a decrease from the four attacks in 2021; ports in Haiti continue to be affected by the crime of armed robbery; most of these occurred in the main port of Port-au-Prince while ships were berthed or at anchor

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 171,000 (violence among armed gangs in the metropolitan area os Port-au-Prince) (2022)

stateless persons: 2,992 (2018); note - individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010

Trafficking in persons

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Haiti does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; Haiti adopted national standard operating procedures for victim identification and support, improved oversight of vulnerable children in orphanages, completed a new national action plan, conducted extensive anti-trafficking training, and collaborated with NGOs on victim identification; however, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts compared with the previous year to expand its anti-trafficking capacity; traffickers operated with impunity and complicity, particularly in high-profile cases; no anti-trafficking law enforcement or victim protection efforts were reported apart from those involving children; the government did not fund the National Committee for the Fight Against Human Trafficking or adult victim services in fiscal year 2021 and made insufficient efforts to combat child domestic servitude; therefore, Haiti remained on Tier 2 Watch List for the second consecutive year (2022)

trafficking profile: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Haiti, as well as Haitians abroad; most of Haiti’s trafficking cases involve children in forced labor and sex trafficking in domestic service; NGOs estimate between 150,000 and 300,000 children work in domestic servitude, of which about two-thirds are girls and one-third boys--mostly victims of sex trafficking and labor trafficking, respectively; Haitian women and girls seeking jobs are instead exploited in commercial sex in the Dominican Republic or for sex tourism; child sex tourism reportedly takes place in Haiti, with most tourists coming from the United States, Canada, and Europe; traffickers target Haitian children in private or NGO-sponsored residential care centers, children working in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, internally displaced persons—including those displaced by natural disasters and gang violence—stateless people, Haitian migrants traveling from or returning to Haiti, and LGBTQI+ youth; female foreign nationals, especially from the Dominican Republic and Venezuela, are particularly at risk for sex and labor trafficking in Haiti; Cuban medical workers in Haiti may have been forced to work by the Cuban government (2022)

Illicit drugs

a transit point for cocaine from South America and marijuana from Jamaica en route to the United States; not a producer or large consumer of illicit drugs; some cultivation of cannabis for local consumption