Haiti

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island of Hispaniola, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti continues to experience bouts of political instability.

Geography

Area

total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

People and Society

Population

total: 11,753,943
male: 5,792,443
female: 5,961,500 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%

Languages

French (official), Creole (official)

Religions

Catholic 55%, Protestant 29%, Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

1.23% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Port-au-Prince

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant); note - former Prime Minister Ariel HENRY, who had assumed executive responsibilities following the assassination of President MOÏSE on 7 July 2021, resigned on 24 April 2024; a nine-member Presidential Transitional Council, equipped with presidential powers, was sworn in on 25 April 2024 and will remain in place until 7 February 2026
head of government: Prime Minister Garry CONILLE (since 3 June 2024)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or le Corps legislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
Senate or le Sénat de la République (30 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des députés (119 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as the National Assembly or L'Assemblée nationale and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

Economy

Economic overview

small Caribbean island economy and OECS-member state; extreme poverty and inflation; enormous income inequality; ongoing civil unrest due to recent presidential assassination; US preferential market access; very open to foreign direct investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.428 billion (2022 est.)
$32.982 billion (2021 est.)
$33.586 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,800 (2022 est.)
$2,900 (2021 est.)
$3,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugarcane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, maize, avocados, tropical fruits, rice, vegetables (2022)

Industries

textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Exports

$1.355 billion (2022 est.)
$1.272 billion (2021 est.)
$1.018 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

US 84%, Canada 4%, Mexico 2%, Thailand 1%, France 1% (2022)

Exports - commodities

garments, essential oils, scrap iron, bedding, tropical fruits (2022)

Imports

$5.451 billion (2022 est.)
$5.048 billion (2021 est.)
$4.177 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

US 31%, Dominican Republic 26%, China 16%, Indonesia 3%, India 2% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, cotton fabric, garments, plastic products (2022)

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
115.631 (2022 est.)
89.227 (2021 est.)
93.51 (2020 est.)
88.815 (2019 est.)
68.032 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, June 11, 2024