Country Summary



In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island of Hispaniola, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti continues to experience bouts of political instability.



total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

People and Society


11,470,261 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%


French (official), Creole (official)


Catholic 55%, Protestant 29%, Vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10% (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

1.18% (2023 est.)


Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Port-au-Prince

Executive branch

chief of state: President (vacant); note - Prime Minister Ariel HENRY assumed executive responsibilities, including naming Cabinet members, following the assassination of President MOISE on 7 July 2021; new elections have not yet been scheduled
head of government: Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or le Corps legislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
Senate or le Sénat de la République (30 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des députés (119 seats; 0 filled as of January 2023; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as the National Assembly or L'Assemblée nationale and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution


Economic overview

small Caribbean island economy and OECS-member state; extreme poverty and inflation; enormous income inequality; ongoing civil unrest due to recent presidential assassination; US preferential market access; very open to foreign direct investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.856 billion (2021 est.)
$33.458 billion (2020 est.)
$34.615 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,900 (2021 est.)
$3,000 (2020 est.)
$3,100 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, yams, avocados, maize, rice, vegetables


textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts


20.04% of GDP (2021 est.)
23.82% of GDP (2020 est.)
20.47% of GDP (2019 est.)


$1.241 billion (2021 est.)
$1.014 billion (2020 est.)
$1.733 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 83%, Canada 4%, Mexico 3%, India 1%, Hong Kong 1% (2021)

Exports - commodities

clothing and apparel, essential oils, eels, mangoes, scrap iron (2021)


$5.222 billion (2021 est.)
$4.206 billion (2020 est.)
$5.161 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 26%, Dominican Republic 23%, China 19%, Turkey 3%, Indonesia 3% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, clothing and apparel, poultry, palm oil (2021)

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
89.227 (2021 est.)
93.51 (2020 est.)
88.815 (2019 est.)
68.032 (2018 est.)
64.77 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 21, 2023