Indonesia

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century. Independence came in 1949. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation.

Geography

Area

total: 1,904,569 sq km

land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

People and Society

Population

277,329,163 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Languages

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

Religions

Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Population growth rate

0.79% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Jakarta; note - Indonesian lawmakers on 18 January 2022 approved the relocation of the country’s capital from Jakarta to a site in East Kalimantan, a jungle area of Borneo; the move to Nusantara, the name of the new capital, will take several years

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014, reelected 17 April 2019, inauguration 19 October 2019); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms) (2019)

Economy

Economic overview

one of the fastest growing economies and largest in Southeast Asia; upper middle-income country; human capital and competitiveness phase of its 20-year development plan; COVID-19 reversed poverty reduction trajectory; strengthening financial resilience

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3,130,470,000,000 (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,400 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, rice, maize, sugar cane, coconuts, cassava, bananas, eggs, poultry, rubber

Industries

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Exports

$178.26 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 15%, United States 10%, Japan 9%, Singapore 8%, India 7%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

coal, palm oil, natural gas, cars, gold (2019)

Imports

$159.64 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 27%, Singapore 12%, Japan 8%, Thailand 5%, United States 5%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, telephones, natural gas (2019)


Page last updated: Thursday, Jun 23, 2022