Country Summary



The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century. Independence came in 1949. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation.



total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

People and Society


279,476,346 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)


Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia


Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Population growth rate

0.76% (2023 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Jakarta; note - Indonesian lawmakers on 18 January 2022 approved the relocation of the country’s capital from Jakarta to a site on the island of Borneo between Samarinda City and the port city of Balikpapan; Nusantara ("archipelago"), the name of the new capital, is expected to be established in August 2024

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)


Economic overview

one of the fastest growing economies and largest in Southeast Asia; upper middle-income country; human capital and competitiveness phase of its 20-year development plan; COVID-19 reversed poverty reduction trajectory; strengthening financial resilience

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.246 trillion (2021 est.)
$3.131 trillion (2020 est.)
$3.197 trillion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,900 (2021 est.)
$11,500 (2020 est.)
$11,900 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, rice, maize, sugar cane, coconuts, cassava, bananas, eggs, poultry, rubber


petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism


0.79% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.91% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.04% of GDP (2019 est.)


$246.87 billion (2021 est.)
$178.418 billion (2020 est.)
$200.097 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

China 22%, United States 11%, Japan 8%, India 6%, Singapore 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

coal, palm oil, natural gas, iron alloys, stainless steel (2021)


$217.715 billion (2021 est.)
$159.872 billion (2020 est.)
$204.23 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 27%, Singapore 12%, Japan 8%, Thailand 5%, United States 5%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, telephones, natural gas (2019)

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
14,308.144 (2021 est.)
14,582.203 (2020 est.)
14,147.671 (2019 est.)
14,236.939 (2018 est.)
13,380.834 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Tuesday, November 14, 2023