Photos of Indonesia

Introduction

Background

The archipelago was once largely under the control of Buddhist and Hindu rulers. By around the 7th century, a Buddhist kingdom arose on Sumatra and expanded into Java and the Malay Peninsula until it was conquered in the late 13th century by the Hindu Majapahit Empire from Java. Majapahit (1290-1527) united most of modern-day Indonesia and Malaysia. Traders introduced Islam in the trade ports around the 11th century, and Indonesians gradually adopted Islam over the next 500 years. The Portuguese conquered parts of Indonesia in the 16th century, but they were ousted by the Dutch (except in East Timor), who began colonizing the islands in the early 17th century. It would be the early 20th century before Dutch colonial rule was established across the entirety of what would become the boundaries of the modern Indonesian state.

Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation.

Indonesia faces a number of issues, including alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia

Area

total: 1,904,569 sq km

land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

comparison ranking: total 16

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,958 km

border countries (3): Malaysia 1,881 km; Papua New Guinea 824 km; Timor-Leste 253 km

Coastline

54,716 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain

mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation

highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 367 m

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

note: Indonesia is the World's leading producer of nickel with an output of 1.6 million mt in 2022

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

67,220 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Danau Toba - 1,150 sq km
note - located in the caldera of a super volcano that erupted more than 70,000 years ago; it is the largest volcanic lake in the World

Major rivers (by length in km)

Sepik (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,126 km; Fly (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,050 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Natural hazards

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; on 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338 m high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami inundating portions of western Java and southern Sumatra leaving more than 400 dead; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, Sinabung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Geography - note

note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire; 80% of tsunamis, caused by volcanic or seismic events, occur within the "Pacific Ring of Fire"

note 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

note 4: two major food crops apparently developed on the island of New Guinea: bananas and sugarcane

People and Society

Population

279,476,346 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 4

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Languages

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

major-language sample(s):
Fakta Dunia, sumber informasi dasar yang sangat diperlukan. (Indonesian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest population.  It is predominantly Muslim and has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world.  The population is projected to increase to as much as 320 million by 2045.  A government-supported family planning program.  The total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of births per woman – from 5.6 in the mid-1960s to 2.7 in the mid-1990s.  The success of the program was also due to the social acceptance of family planning, which received backing from influential Muslim leaders and organizations.

The fertility decline slowed in the late 1990’s when responsibility for family planning programs shifted to the district level, where the programs were not prioritized.  Since 2012 the national government revitalized the national family planning program, and Indonesia’s TFR has slowly decreased to 2.3 in 2020.  The government may reach its goal of achieving replacement level fertility – 2.1 children per woman – but the large number of women of childbearing age ensures significant population growth for many years. 

Indonesia is a source country for labor migrants, a transit country for asylum seekers, and a destination mainly for highly skilled migrant workers.  International labor migration, both legal and illegal, from Indonesia to other parts of Asia (most commonly Malaysia) and the Middle East has taken place for decades because of high unemployment and underemployment, poverty, and low wages domestically.  Increasing numbers of migrant workers are drawn to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US.  The majority of Indonesian labor migration is temporary and consists predominantly of low-skilled workers, mainly women working as domestics.

Indonesia’s strategic location between Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and Indian Oceans – and its relatively easy accessibility via boat – appeal to asylum seekers.  It is also an attractive transit location because of its easy entry requirements and the ability to continue on to Australia.  Recent asylum seekers have come from Afghanistan, Burma (Rohingyas), Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.  Since 2013, when Australia tightening its immigration policy, thousands of migrants and asylum seekers have been stranded in Indonesia, where they live in precarious conditions and receive only limited support from international organizations.  The situation for refugees in Indonesia has also worsened because Australia and the US, which had resettled the majority of refugees in Indonesia, have significantly lowered their intake.

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.22% (male 34,627,270/female 33,066,304)

15-64 years: 68.1% (male 95,267,122/female 95,063,200)

65 years and over: 7.68% (2023 est.) (male 9,892,325/female 11,560,125)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.6

youth dependency ratio: 37.6

elderly dependency ratio: 10

potential support ratio: 10 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 31.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 30.5 years

female: 32 years

comparison ranking: total 123

Population growth rate

0.76% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 118

Birth rate

15.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 112

Death rate

6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 130

Net migration rate

-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 132

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Urbanization

urban population: 58.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

11.249 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.729 million Bekasi, 3.044 million Surabaya, 3.041 million Depok, 2.674 million Bandung, 2.514 million Tangerang (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2017 est.)

note: data represents median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

173 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Infant mortality rate

total: 19.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 80

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 71.1 years

female: 75.7 years

comparison ranking: total population 147

Total fertility rate

1.99 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 108

Gross reproduction rate

0.97 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 86.8% of population

total: 93.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 13.2% of population

total: 6.7% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

3.4% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 86.5% of population

total: 92.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 13.5% of population

total: 7.5% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2023)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and sexually transmitted diseases: hepatitis B (2024)

note: on 31 August 2023, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Southeast Asia; Indonesia is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, the CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.9% (2016)

comparison ranking: 162

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 178

Tobacco use

total: 37.6% (2020 est.)

male: 71.4% (2020 est.)

female: 3.7% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 9

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

17.7% (2018)

comparison ranking: 26

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2%

women married by age 18: 16.3% (2017 est.)

Education expenditures

3.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 141

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 97.4%

female: 94.6% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)

People - note

Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the World after China, India, and the United States; more than half of the Indonesian population - roughly 150 million people or 55% - live on the island of Java (about the size of California) making it the most crowded island on earth

Environment

Environment - current issues

large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 58.6% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.39% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 71

Revenue from coal

1.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 5

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 19.34 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 563.32 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 244.5 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 65.2 million tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 4.564 million tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2016 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Danau Toba - 1,150 sq km
note - located in the caldera of a super volcano that erupted more than 70,000 years ago; it is the largest volcanic lake in the World

Major rivers (by length in km)

Sepik (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,126 km; Fly (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,050 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 23.8 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 9.14 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 189.7 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

2.02 trillion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 10

global geoparks and regional networks: Batur; Belitong; Ciletuh - Palabuhanratu; Gunung Sewu; Ijen; Maros Pangkep; Merangin Jambi; Raja Ampat; Rinjani-Lombok; Toba Caldera (2023)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies (Dutch East Indies), Netherlands New Guinea

etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Jakarta; note - Indonesian lawmakers on 18 January 2022 approved the relocation of the country’s capital from Jakarta to a site on the island of Borneo between Samarinda City and the port city of Balikpapan; Nusantara ("archipelago"), the name of the new capital, is expected to be established in August 2024

geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Indonesia has three time zones

etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"

Administrative divisions

35 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Papua Barat Daya (Southwest Papua), Papua Pegunungan (Papua Highlands), Papua Selatan (South Papua), Papua Tengah (Central Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence

17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution

history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959

amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly, with at least two thirds of its members present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002

Legal system

civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Suffrage

17 years of age; universal; married persons regardless of age

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 February 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: 2024: PRABOWO Subianto elected president; percent of vote - PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 58.6%, Anies Rasyid BASWEDAN (Independent) 24.9%, GANJAR Pranowo (PDI-P) 16.5%

2019
: Joko WIDODO reelected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (580 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Regional Representative Council - last held on 14 February 2024 (next to be held in 2029)
House of Representatives - last held on 14 February 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; composition as of January 2024 - men 102, women 34, percent of women 25%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 16.7%, Golkar 15.3%, Gerindra 13.2%, PKB 10.6%, Nasdem 9.7%, PKS 8.4%, PD 7.4%, PAN 7.2%; other 11.5% (10 additional parties received votes); seats by party - PDI-P 110, Golkar 102, Gerindra 86, PKB 68, Nasdem 69, PKS 53, PD 44, PAN 48; composition as of January 2024 - men 449, women 126, percent of women 21.9%; total People's Consultative Assembly percent of women 22.5%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders

Democrat Party or PD [Agus Harimurti YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Ahmad SYAIKHU]
United Development Party or PPP [Muhamad MARDIONO]

note: these parties are those represented in national and regional legislatures; additional parties are represented in only regional legislatures

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Ida Bagus Made BIMANTARA (since 30 November 2023)

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX: [1] (202) 775-5236

email address and website:
washington.kbri@kemlu.go.id

https://www.kemlu.go.id/washington/en#!

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sung Y. KIM (since 21 October 2020)

embassy: Jl. Medan Merdeka Selatan No. 3-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: 8200 Jakarta Place, Washington DC  20521-8200

telephone: [62] (21) 5083-1000

FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189

email address and website:
jakartaacs@state.gov

https://id.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Surabaya

consulate(s): Medan

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 10 (6 cultural, 4 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Borobudur Temple Compounds (c); Komodo National Park (n); Prambanan Temple Compounds (c); Ujung Kulon National Park (n); Sangiran Early Man Site (c); Lorentz National Park (n); Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (n); Cultural Landscape of Bali Province (c); Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto (c); Cosmological Axis of Yogyakarta and its Historic Landmarks (c)

Economy

Economic overview

one of the fastest growing economies and largest in Southeast Asia; upper middle-income country; human capital and competitiveness phase of its 20-year development plan; COVID-19 reversed poverty reduction trajectory; strengthening financial resilience

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3.419 trillion (2022 est.)
$3.247 trillion (2021 est.)
$3.131 trillion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 7

Real GDP growth rate

5.31% (2022 est.)
3.7% (2021 est.)
-2.07% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 66

Real GDP per capita

$12,400 (2022 est.)
$11,900 (2021 est.)
$11,500 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 127

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.319 trillion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.21% (2022 est.)
1.56% (2021 est.)
1.92% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 62

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2017)

Moody's rating: Baa2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 41% (2017 est.)

services: 45.4% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 197; industry 26; agriculture 71

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, rice, maize, sugar cane, coconuts, cassava, bananas, eggs, poultry, rubber

Industries

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Industrial production growth rate

4.11% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 94

Labor force

138.099 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 4

Unemployment rate

3.46% (2022 est.)
3.83% (2021 est.)
4.25% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 55

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 16.1% (2021 est.)

male: 16.3%

female: 15.7%

comparison ranking: total 107

Population below poverty line

9.5% (2022 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

37.9 (2022 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 71

Average household expenditures

on food: 31.7% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 7.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 30.7% (2022 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

0.76% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.79% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.91% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $130.872 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $192.97 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Public debt

44.4% of GDP (2021 est.)
42.9% of GDP (2020 est.)
33.73% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 124

Taxes and other revenues

9.09% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 192

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$12.67 billion (2022 est.)
$3.511 billion (2021 est.)
-$4.433 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 24

Exports

$315.584 billion (2022 est.)
$246.787 billion (2021 est.)
$178.418 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 30

Exports - partners

China 22%, United States 11%, Japan 8%, India 6%, Singapore 5% (2021)

Exports - commodities

coal, palm oil, natural gas, iron alloys, stainless steel (2021)

Imports

$273.249 billion (2022 est.)
$217.579 billion (2021 est.)
$159.872 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 30

Imports - partners

China 27%, Singapore 12%, Japan 8%, Thailand 5%, United States 5%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, telephones, natural gas (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$137.222 billion (2022 est.)
$144.908 billion (2021 est.)
$135.916 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 20

Debt - external

$393.252 billion (2019 est.)
$360.945 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 31

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
14,849.854 (2022 est.)
14,308.144 (2021 est.)
14,582.203 (2020 est.)
14,147.671 (2019 est.)
14,236.939 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: (2020) less than 1 million

electrification - total population: 99.2% (2021)

electrification - urban areas: 99.9% (2021)

electrification - rural areas: 98.2% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 69.065 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 256,742,190,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 1.553 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 25.08 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 64; exports 151; installed generating capacity 19; transmission/distribution losses 196; consumption 18

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 82.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 563.728 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 132.548 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 409.892 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 8.95 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 39.891 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 842,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 1.649 million bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 204,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 309,700 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 2.48 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

950,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

Refined petroleum products - exports

79,930 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 47

Refined petroleum products - imports

591,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 15

Natural gas

production: 62,612,013,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 38,673,953,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 23,938,060,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 1,408,478,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

563.543 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 267.326 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 209.279 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 86.938 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 11

Energy consumption per capita

29.68 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 122

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 8,423,990 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 20

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 365,872,608 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 3

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Indonesia faces more than the usual number of obstacles in terms of enabling widespread access to quality telecommunications services for its population of more than 270 million; the geographical challenges have been further compounded by a variety of social, political, and economic problems over the years that have kept the country’s wealth distributed very thinly; the fixed-line (fiber) and mobile operators have continued to expand and upgrade their networks across the country; Indonesia’s 18,000 islands (many of which, however, are sparsely populated) makes the deployment of fixed-line infrastructure on a broad scale difficult; there has been renewed activity in fiber optic cable, but the bundling of fixed-line telephony with TV and internet services will see the country’s teledensity stabilize; mobile subscriptions have reached more than 130% and is projected to exceed 150% by 2026; with 4G LTE universally available, the major mobile companies have been busy launching 5G services in selected areas; the rollout of 5G will be hampered by the lack of availability of suitable frequencies; the 4G had to be reallocated from broadcasting services, and indications are that the same process is going to have to be followed in order to allow the expansion of 5G into its core frequency bands (3.3 to 4.2GHz) (2022)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership roughly 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular 134 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 62; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, DAMAI, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, IGG, JIBA, Link 1, 3, 4,  & 5, PGASCOM, B3J2, Tanjung Pandam-Sungai Kakap Cable System, JAKABARE, JAYABAYA, INDIGO-West, Matrix Cable System, ASC, SJJK, Jaka2LaDeMa, S-U-B Cable System, JBCS, MKCS, BALOK, Palapa Ring East, West and Middle, SMPCS Packet-1 and 2, LTCS, TSCS, SEA-US and Kamal Domestic Submarine Cable System, 35 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)

Broadcast media

mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)

Internet users

total: 167.4 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 62% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 5

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 11,722,218 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 17

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 611

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,154,100 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,131,910,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports

513 (2024)

comparison ranking: 16

Heliports

24 (2024)

Pipelines

1,064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11,702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7,767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)

Railways

total: 8,159 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 8,159 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)

note: 4,816 km operational

comparison ranking: total 27

Roadways

total: 496,607 km

paved: 283,102 km

unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)

comparison ranking: total 13

Waterways

21,579 km (2011)

comparison ranking: 8

Merchant marine

total: 11,422 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 160, container ship 219, general cargo 2,347, oil tanker 714, other 7,982

comparison ranking: total 1

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Perak (3,901,215), Tanjung Priok (6,849,227) (2021)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh

LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes Marine Corps (Korps Marinir or KorMar)), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)) (2023)

note 1: in 2014, Indonesia created a Maritime Security Agency (Bakamla) to coordinate the actions of all maritime security agencies, including the Navy, the Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai, KPLP), the Water Police (Polair), Customs (Bea Cukai), and Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries

note 2: the Indonesian National Police, which reports directly to the president, includes a paramilitary Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB); following the Bali terror bombing in 2002, the National Police formed a special counterterrorism force called Detachment 88 (Densus or Detasemen Khusus 88 Antiteror); Detachment 88 often works with the TNI's Joint Special Operations Command, which has counterterrorism and counterinsurgency units; the National Police are also bolstered by the KAMRA "People's Security" police auxiliaries

Military expenditures

0.8% of GDP (2023 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2022 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2021 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 135

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 400,000 active-duty troops (300,000 Army; 60,000 Navy, including about 20,000 marines; 30,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a wide mix of Chinese, Russian, and Western (including US) equipment; in recent years, the top suppliers have included China, France, Germany, the Netherlands, South Korea, and the US; the TNI has been engaged in a modernization program for more than a decade with uneven success; Indonesia has a growing defense industry fueled by technology transfers and cooperation agreements with several countries; in 2019, the Indonesian Government said that growing its domestic defense industry was a national priority over the following 10 years (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary military service for men and women, with selective conscription authorized (men, age 18), but not utilized; 24-month service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers) (2023)

note: as of 2023, women comprised about 7% of the Indonesian military

Military deployments

225 (plus about 140 police) Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,025 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 1,225 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2024)

Military - note

the military is responsible for external defense, combatting separatism, and responding to natural disasters; in certain conditions it may provide operational support to police, such as for counterterrorism operations, maintaining public order, and addressing communal conflicts; the TNI has undergone reforms since the 1990s to improve its professionalism and limit its involvement in internal politics; the infantry-heavy Army is the largest service and deployed throughout the country in 14 area (KODAM) and three joint area (KOGABWILHAN) defense commands; it also has a special forces command (KOPASSUS) and three strategic reserve (KOSTRAD) infantry division headquarters; as of 2024, the Army was conducting counter-insurgency operations in Papua against the West Papua Liberation Army, the military wing of the Free Papua Organization, which has been fighting a low-level insurgency since Indonesia annexed the former Dutch colony in the 1960s; it has also been assisting police in Sulawesi in countering the Mujahideen Indonesia Timur (MIT; aka East Indonesia Mujahideen), a local militant group affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

the Navy is organized and equipped for coastal defense and patrolling Indonesia’s territorial waters where it faces such issues as piracy, transnational crime, illegal fishing, and incursions by Chinese vessels; its surface warships include more than 30 frigates and corvettes and a substantial number of patrol vessels; it also has a few attack-type submarines, as well as a maritime aviation component and an amphibious force with several marine infantry brigades and amphibious assault ships; the Air Force has more than 100 combat aircraft

Indonesia is not a formal claimant in the South China Sea, although some of its waters lie within China's “nine-dash line” maritime claims, resulting in some stand offs in recent years; since 2016, the Indonesian military has bolstered its presence on Great Natuna Island (aka Pulau Natuna Besar), the main island of the Middle Natuna Archipelago, which is part of the Riau Islands Province, and held military exercises in the surrounding waters (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN; established 2021); BRIN integrated five previously separate Indonesian institutions, including the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space of Indonesia (Lembaga Penerbangan Dan Antariksa Nasional or LAPAN; established 1964), and nearly 50 governmental research divisions; BRIN is under the Ministry of Research and Technology and manages Indonesia’s space program through the Indonesian Space Agency (INASA; formed 2022) and the Research Organization for Aeronautics and Space (ORPA; formed 2021) (2023)

Space launch site(s)

Stasiun Peluncuran Roket rocket launch facility (West Java); building an space launch facility/spaceport on Biak, Papua (estimated completion date is 2025) (2023)

Space program overview

has had a space program since the 1960s that has focused largely on rocket development and the acquisition and operation of satellites; operates satellites; manufactures remote sensing (RS) satellites; has a sounding (research) rocket program geared towards development of an indigenous orbital satellite launch vehicle (SLV) and independent satellite launch capabilities; researching and developing a range of other space-related technologies and capabilities related to satellite payloads, communications, RS, and astronomy; has relations with several foreign space agencies and industries, including those of France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, and the US (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (aka Jemaah Anshorut Daulah); Jemaah Islamiyah

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Indonesia-Australia: all borders have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Indonesia-Malaysia: territorial disputes resulting from competing interpretations of colonial era documents have prevented a full demarcation of the land border where there are several areas under dispute; negotiations continue; the two countries have not agreed to any EEZ boundaries; disputed maritime areas includes the Ambalat block in the Celebes Sea

Indonesia-Palau: discussions on reaching an agreement on a partial EEZ boundary line continue 

Indonesia-Papua New Guinea:  Papua New Guinea ratified an agreement governing the border in 2023; migrants and separatists crossing the porous 760-kilometer (472-mile) border have complicated diplomatic relations

Indonesia-Philippines:  have ratified EEZ boundary agreements that were initially signed in 2014

Indonesia-Singapore: continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island

Indonesia-Timor Leste: as of 2023, negotiations were ongoing on remaining two segments of the land border under dispute (Bidjael Sunan-Oben and Noel Besi-Citrana) and the maritime borders from Batugade to Atauro and from Atauro to Jaco 

Indonesia-Vietnam: agreed on a continental shelf boundary agreement with Vietnam in 2003 which produced a border around 250 nautical miles long, but the two countries continue to negotiate an agreement regarding EEZ delimitations in the South China Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,684 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2022)

IDPs: 72,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2007 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2022)

stateless persons: 866 (2022)

Illicit drugs

major transit point and destination for illicit narcotics; a destination for methamphetamine, ecstasy, and other illicit drugs; methamphetamine production facilities within Indonesia