Photos of Indonesia

Indonesia is tectonically highly unstable, making it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. The archipelago lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire where the Indo-Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate and where they melt at about 100 km (62 mi) below the earths' surface. A string of volcanoes runs southeastward through Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Nusa Tenggara, and then fishhooks north and westward to the Banda Islands of Maluku and North Sulawesi. Indonesia has about 150 active volcanoes, the most of any country on earth. The photo shows a dormant but smoking volcano on the island of Sumatra.



The archipelago was once largely under the control of Buddhist and Hindu rulers. By around the 7th century, a Buddhist kingdom arose on Sumatra and expanded into Java and the Malay Peninsula until it was conquered in the late 13th century by the Hindu Majapahit Empire from Java. Majapahit (1290-1527) united most of modern-day Indonesia and Malaysia. Traders introduced Islam in the trade ports around the 11th century, and Indonesians gradually adopted Islam over the next 500 years. The Portuguese conquered parts of Indonesia in the 16th century, but they were ousted by the Dutch (except for East Timor), who began colonizing the islands in the early 17th century. It would be the early 20th century before Dutch colonial rule was established across the entirety of what would become the boundaries of the modern Indonesian state.

Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia


total: 1,904,569 sq km

land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

country comparison to the world: 16

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

<p>slightly less than three times the size of Texas</p>

Land boundaries

total: 2,958 km

border countries (3): Malaysia 1881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km


54,716 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains


highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 367 m

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

67,220 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Natural hazards

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; on 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338 m high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami inundating portions of western Java and southern Sumatra leaving more than 400 dead; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, Sinabung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Geography - note

note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire; 80% of tsunamis, caused by volcanic or seismic events, occur within the "Pacific Ring of Fire"

note 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

People and Society


noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)


Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

major-language sample(s):
Fakta Dunia, sumber informasi dasar yang sangat diperlukan. (Indonesian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest population.  It is predominantly Muslim and has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world.  The population is projected to increase to as much as 320 million by 2045.  A government-supported family planning program.  The total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of births per woman – from 5.6 in the mid-1960s to 2.7 in the mid-1990s.  The success of the program was also due to the social acceptance of family planning, which received backing from influential Muslim leaders and organizations.

The fertility decline slowed in the late 1990’s when responsibility for family planning programs shifted to the district level, where the programs were not prioritized.  Since 2012 the national government revitalized the national family planning program, and Indonesia’s TFR has slowly decreased to 2.3 in 2020.  The government may reach its goal of achieving replacement level fertility – 2.1 children per woman – but the large number of women of childbearing age ensures significant population growth for many years. 

Indonesia is a source country for labor migrants, a transit country for asylum seekers, and a destination mainly for highly skilled migrant workers.  International labor migration, both legal and illegal, from Indonesia to other parts of Asia (most commonly Malaysia) and the Middle East has taken place for decades because of high unemployment and underemployment, poverty, and low wages domestically.  Increasing numbers of migrant workers are drawn to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US.  The majority of Indonesian labor migration is temporary and consists predominantly of low-skilled workers, mainly women working as domestics.

Indonesia’s strategic location between Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and Indian Oceans – and its relatively easy accessibility via boat – appeal to asylum seekers.  It is also an attractive transit location because of its easy entry requirements and the ability to continue on to Australia.  Recent asylum seekers have come from Afghanistan, Burma (Rohingyas), Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.  Since 2013, when Australia tightening its immigration policy, thousands of migrants and asylum seekers have been stranded in Indonesia, where they live in precarious conditions and receive only limited support from international organizations.  The situation for refugees in Indonesia has also worsened because Australia and the US, which had resettled the majority of refugees in Indonesia, have significantly lowered their intake.

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.87% (male 32,473,246/female 31,264,034)

15-24 years: 16.76% (male 22,786,920/female 21,960,130)

25-54 years: 42.56% (male 58,249,570/female 55,409,579)

55-64 years: 8.99% (male 11,033,838/female 12,968,005)

65 years and over: 7.82% (male 9,099,773/female 11,781,271) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Indonesia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.5

youth dependency ratio: 38.3

elderly dependency ratio: 9.2

potential support ratio: 10.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 31.1 years

male: 30.5 years

female: 31.8 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Birth rate

15.59 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Death rate

6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Net migration rate

-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated


urban population: 57.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

10.915 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.510 million Bekasi, 2.972 million Surabaya, 2.607 million Bandung, 2.397 million Tangerang, 2.368 million Medan (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

177 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Infant mortality rate

total: 20.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.82 years

male: 70.62 years

female: 75.12 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 96.6% of population

rural: 83.7% of population

total: 90.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population

rural: 16.3% of population

total: 9.2% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.43 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 92.5% of population

rural: 76.8% of population

total: 85.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.5% of population

rural: 23.2% of population

total: 14.6% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Indonesia; as of 6 October 2021, Indonesia has reported a total of 4,223,094 cases of COVID-19 or 1,543.96 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 52.07 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 5 October 2021, 34.36% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.7%

male: 97.3%

female: 94% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 13.5%

male: 13.8%

female: 13.2% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105


Environment - current issues

large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.58 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 563.32 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 244.5 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 23.8 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 9.135 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 189.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

2,018,700,000,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 1.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5


urban population: 57.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Indonesia; as of 6 October 2021, Indonesia has reported a total of 4,223,094 cases of COVID-19 or 1,543.96 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 52.07 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 5 October 2021, 34.36% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 65.2 million tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 4.564 million tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2016 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"

Government type

presidential republic


name: Jakarta

geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Indonesia has three time zones

etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"

Administrative divisions

31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services


17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)


history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959

amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly, with at least two thirds of its members present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002

Legal system

civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years


17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014, reelected 17 April 2019, inauguration 19 October 2019); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government (2019)

head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019) (2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president 

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019 (next election 2024)

election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms) (2019)

elections: Regional Representative Council - last held 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024)
House of Representatives - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024) (2019)

election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; compostion - NA
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.3%, Gerindra 12.6%, Golkar 12.3%,  PKB 9.7%, Nasdem 9.1%, PKS 8.2%, PD 7.8%, PAN 6.8%, PPP 4.5%, other 9.6%; seats by party - PDI-P 128, Golkar 85, Gerindra 78, Nasdem 59, PKB 58, PD 54, PKS 50, PAN 44, PPP 19; composition - men 475, women 100, percent of women 17.9%; total People's Consultative Assembly percent of women NA (2019)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders

Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
Party of the Functional Groups or Golkar [Airlangga HARTARTO]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [Oesman Sapta ODANG]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Muhammad Sohibul IMAN]
United Development Party or PPP [Muhammad ROMAHURMUZIY] (2019)

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Iwan Freddy Hari SUSANTO, Minister (since 1 April 2021)

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission:

Ambassador Sung Y. KIM (since 21 October 2020)

embassy: Jl. Medan Merdeka Selatan No. 3-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: 8200 Jakarta Place, Washington DC  8200

telephone: [62] (21) 5083-1000 (2020)

FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189 (2018)

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Surabaya

consulate(s): Medan

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945


Economic overview

Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 34% today. In May 2017 Standard & Poor’s became the last major ratings agency to upgrade Indonesia’s sovereign credit rating to investment grade.

Poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions are still part of Indonesia’s economic landscape. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3,196,682,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,043,743,000,000 (2018 est.)

$2,894,125,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 7

Real GDP growth rate

5.03% (2019 est.)

5.17% (2018 est.)

5.07% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Real GDP per capita

$11,812 (2019 est.)

$11,372 (2018 est.)

$10,936 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 135

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1,119,720,000,000 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.8% (2019 est.)

3.2% (2018 est.)

3.8% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2017)

Moody's rating: Baa2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 41% (2017 est.)

services: 45.4% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, rice, maize, sugar cane, coconuts, cassava, bananas, eggs, poultry, rubber


petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 32%

industry: 21%

services: 47% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)


revenues: 131.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 159.6 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$30.359 billion (2019 est.)

-$30.633 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200


$249.628 billion (2019 est.)

$251.827 billion (2018 est.)

$236.354 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Exports - partners

China 15%, United States 10%, Japan 9%, Singapore 8%, India 7%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

coal, palm oil, natural gas, cars, gold (2019)


$223.44 billion (2019 est.)

$242.046 billion (2018 est.)

$216.342 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32

Imports - partners

China 27%, Singapore 12%, Japan 8%, Thailand 5%, United States 5%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, telephones, natural gas (2019)

Debt - external

$393.252 billion (2019 est.)

$360.945 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -

14,110 (2020 est.)

14,015 (2019 est.)

14,470 (2018 est.)

13,389.4 (2014 est.)

11,865.2 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 9,662,135

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.57 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 341,277,549

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126.15 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

with large population, disbursed island geography, and slow economic growth, Indonesia’s telecom sector is based on 3G/LTE mobile infrastructure and inadequate fixed-line capacity; market is attracting foreign investment, especially in data center and cloud based services; tests of 5G challenged by lack of spectrum; satellite improvements in 2020 (2021)


domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 127 per 100 persons; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly (2019)

international: country code - 62; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, DAMAI, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, IGG, JIBA, Link 1, 3, 4,  & 5, PGASCOM, B3J2, Tanjung Pandam-Sungai Kakap Cable System, JAKABARE, JAYABAYA, INDIGO-West, Matrix Cable System, ASC, SJJK, Jaka2LaDeMa, S-U-B Cable System, JBCS, MKCS, BALOK, Palapa Ring East, West and Middle, SMPCS Packet-1 and 2, LTCS, TSCS, SEA-US and Kamal Domestic Submarine Cable System, 35 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)

Internet users

total: 104,563,108

percent of population: 39.79% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 10,284,364

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.8 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 611

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,154,100 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,131,910,000 mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 186

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 51

914 to 1,523 m: 72

under 914 m: 37 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 487

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 460 (2013)


76 (2013)


1064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)


total: 8,159 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)

note: 4,816 km operational

country comparison to the world: 27


total: 496,607 km (2011)

paved: 283,102 km (2011)

unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 14

Merchant marine

total: 10,137

by type: bulk carrier 129, container ship 226, general cargo 2,213, oil tanker 643, other 6,926 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 1

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Perak (3,900,000), Tanjung Priok (7,600,000) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh

LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes Marine Corps (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Komando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)), Armed Forces Special Operations Command (Koopssus), Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad)

Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai, KPLP) is under the Ministry of Transportation (2021)

note(s):  the Indonesian National Police includes a paramilitary Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB); following the Bali terror bombing in 2002, the National Police formed a special counter-terrorism force called Detachment 88 (Densus or Detasemen Khusus 88 Antiteror)

Military expenditures

0.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

0.7% of GDP (2019)

0.7% of GDP (2018)

0.9% of GDP (2017)

0.8% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 140

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Indonesian National Armed Forces have approximately, 400,000 active duty troops (300,000 Army; 65,000 Navy, including about 20,000 marines; 30,000 Air Force) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Indonesian military inventory is comprised of equipment from a wide variety of sources; since 2010, the top suppliers are China, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, the UK, and the US; Indonesia has a growing defense industry fueled by technology transfers and cooperation agreements with several countries; in 2019, the Indonesian Government publicly said that growing its domestic defense industry is a national priority over the next 5-10 years (2020)

Military deployments

200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,025 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 1,250 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (Jan 2021)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; the number of attacks increased slightly from 25 incidents in 2019 to 26 in 2020 due to aggressive maritime patrolling by regional authorities; vessels continue to be boarded while anchored or berthed at Indonesian ports with two crew taken hostage and two threatened in 2020; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2019)

Military - note

Indonesian military and police forces are engaged in counter-insurgency operations in Papua against the West Papua Liberation Army, the military wing of the Free Papua Organization, which has been fighting a low-level insurgency since the 1960s when Indonesia annexed the former Dutch colony; since 2019, there has been an increase in militant activity in Papua and a larger Indonesian military presence; Papua was formally incorporated into Indonesia in 1969

in addition, the Indonesian military has been assisting police in countering the Mujahideen Indonesia Timur (MIT; aka East Indonesia Mujahideen), a local Islamic State (ISIS)-affiliated terrorist group

Indonesia is not a formal claimant in the South China Sea, although some of its waters lie within China's “nine-dash line” maritime claims, resulting in some stand offs in recent years; since 2016, the Indonesian military has bolstered its presence on Great Natuna Island (aka Pulau Natuna Besar), the main island of the Middle Natuna Archipelago, which is part of the Riau Islands province, and held military exercises in surrounding waters


Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (aka Jemaah Anshorut Daulah); Jemaah Islamiyah

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,866 (Afghanistan) (2019)

IDPs: 40,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2007 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2020)

stateless persons: 874 (2020)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers