Photos of Indonesia

Introduction

Background

The archipelago gradually adopted Islam between the 13th and 16th centuries. The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia

Area

total: 1,904,569 sq km

land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

country comparison to the world: 16

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 2,958 km

border countries (3): Malaysia 1881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km

Coastline

54,716 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain

mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation

mean elevation: 367 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

67,220 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Natural hazards

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; on 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338 m high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami inundating portions of western Java and southern Sumatra leaving more than 400 dead; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, Sinabung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Environment - current issues

large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire; 80% of tsunamis, caused by volcanic or seismic events, occur within the "Pacific Ring of Fire"

note 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Languages

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)

note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

Religions

Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.87% (male 32,473,246/female 31,264,034)

15-24 years: 16.76% (male 22,786,920/female 21,960,130)

25-54 years: 42.56% (male 58,249,570/female 55,409,579)

55-64 years: 8.99% (male 11,033,838/female 12,968,005)

65 years and over: 7.82% (male 9,099,773/female 11,781,271) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.5

youth dependency ratio: 38.3

elderly dependency ratio: 9.2

potential support ratio: 10.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 31.1 years

male: 30.5 years

female: 31.8 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Birth rate

15.59 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Death rate

6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130

Net migration rate

-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Urbanization

urban population: 56.6% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 2.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

10.915 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.510 million Bekasi, 2.972 million Surabaya, 2.607 million Bandung, 2.397 million Tangerang, 2.368 million Medan (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.8 years (2012 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

177 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Infant mortality rate

total: 20.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.82 years

male: 70.62 years

female: 75.12 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 96.6% of population

rural: 83.7% of population

total: 90.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population

rural: 16.3% of population

total: 9.2% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.43 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 92.5% of population

rural: 76.8% of population

total: 85.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.5% of population

rural: 23.2% of population

total: 14.6% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.7%

male: 97.3%

female: 94% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 16.5%

male: 16.5%

female: 16.5% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Jakarta

geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Indonesia has three time zones

etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"

Administrative divisions

31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence

17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution

history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959

amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly, with at least two thirds of its members present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002

Legal system

civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Suffrage

17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014, reelected 17 April 2019, inauguration 19 October 2019); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government (2019)

head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019) (2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president 

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019 (next election 2024)

election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms) (2019)

elections: Regional Representative Council - last held 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024)
House of Representatives - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024) (2019)

election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; compostion - NA
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.3%, Gerindra 12.6%, Golkar 12.3%,  PKB 9.7%, Nasdem 9.1%, PKS 8.2%, PD 7.8%, PAN 6.8%, PPP 4.5%, other 9.6%; seats by party - PDI-P 128, Golkar 85, Gerindra 78, Nasdem 59, PKB 58, PD 54, PKS 50, PAN 44, PPP 19; composition - men 475, women 100, percent of women 17.9%; total People's Consultative Assembly percent of women NA (2019)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders

Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
Party of the Functional Groups or Golkar [Airlangga HARTARTO]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [Oesman Sapta ODANG]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Muhammad Sohibul IMAN]
United Development Party or PPP [Muhammad ROMAHURMUZIY] (2019)

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad LUTFI (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission:

Ambassador Sung Y. KIM (October 2020)



telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000 (2020)

embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520

FAX: [62] (21) 2395-1697 (2018)

consulate(s) general: Surabaya

consulate(s): Medan

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945

Economy

Economic overview

Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 34% today. In May 2017 Standard & Poor’s became the last major ratings agency to upgrade Indonesia’s sovereign credit rating to investment grade.

Poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions are still part of Indonesia’s economic landscape. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.

Real GDP growth rate

5.03% (2019 est.)

5.17% (2018 est.)

5.07% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.8% (2019 est.)

3.2% (2018 est.)

3.8% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2017)

Moody's rating: Baa2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3,196,682,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,043,743,000,000 (2018 est.)

$2,894,125,000,000 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 7

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1,119,720,000,000 (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,812 (2019 est.)

$11,372 (2018 est.)

$10,936 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 135

Gross national saving

31% of GDP (2019 est.)

31.8% of GDP (2018 est.)

30.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 41% (2017 est.)

services: 45.4% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, rice, maize, sugar cane, coconuts, cassava, bananas, eggs, poultry, rubber

Industries

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 32%

industry: 21%

services: 47% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)

Budget

revenues: 131.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 159.6 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$30.359 billion (2019 est.)

-$30.633 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

Exports

$249.628 billion (2019 est.)

$251.827 billion (2018 est.)

$236.354 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Exports - partners

China 13.6%, US 10.6%, Japan 10.5%, India 8.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Malaysia 5.1%, South Korea 4.8% (2017)

Exports - commodities

mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts

Imports

$223.44 billion (2019 est.)

$242.046 billion (2018 est.)

$216.342 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32

Imports - partners

China 23.2%, Singapore 10.9%, Japan 10%, Thailand 6%, Malaysia 5.6%, South Korea 5.3%, US 5.2% (2017)

Imports - commodities

mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs

Debt - external

$393.252 billion (2019 est.)

$360.945 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -

14,110 (2020 est.)

14,015 (2019 est.)

14,470 (2018 est.)

13,389.4 (2014 est.)

11,865.2 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 9,272,754

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.5 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 337,766,682

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127.49 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: international service good; Indonesia has very low fixed line and fixed broadband penetration, high mobile penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; 4G mobile services are relatively advanced, 7 operators compete for revenue in the Indonesian market; Chinese company Huawei working on the development of 5G technology in the country; mobile broadband market still in early stages of development; data center market has experienced significant growth; Kacific-1 satellite launched in 2019 to significantly improve telecommunications (2020)

domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 127 per 100 persons; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly (2019)

international: country code - 62; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, DAMAI, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, IGG, JIBA, Link 1, 3, 4,  & 5, PGASCOM, B3J2, Tanjung Pandam-Sungai Kakap Cable System, JAKABARE, JAYABAYA, INDIGO-West, Matrix Cable System, ASC, SJJK, Jaka2LaDeMa, S-U-B Cable System, JBCS, MKCS, BALOK, Palapa Ring East, West and Middle, SMPCS Packet-1 and 2, LTCS, TSCS, SEA-US and Kamal Domestic Submarine Cable System, 35 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)

Internet users

total: 104,563,108

percent of population: 39.79% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 7

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 8,874,116

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 611

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,154,100 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,131,910,000 mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 186 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 51 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 72 (2017)

under 914 m: 37 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 487 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 23 (2013)

under 914 m: 460 (2013)

Heliports

76 (2013)

Pipelines

1064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)

Railways

total: 8,159 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)

note: 4,816 km operational

country comparison to the world: 27

Roadways

total: 496,607 km (2011)

paved: 283,102 km (2011)

unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 14

Merchant marine

total: 10,137

by type: bulk carrier 129, container ship 226, general cargo 2,213, oil tanker 643, other 6,926 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 1

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Perak (3,553,370), Tanjung Priok (6,090,000) (2017)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh

LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Komando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)), Armed Forces Special Operations Command (Koopssus), Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad)

Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai, KPLP) is under the Ministry of Transportation (2019)

note:  the Indonesian National Police includes a paramilitary Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB)

Military expenditures

0.7% of GDP (2019)

0.7% of GDP (2018)

0.9% of GDP (2017)

0.8% of GDP (2016)

0.9% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 137

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Indonesian National Armed Forces have an estimated 395,000 active duty troops (300,000 Army; 65,000 Navy; 30,000 Air Force); the Police Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB) has an estimated 14,000 personnel (2019)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Indonesian military inventory is comprised of equipment from a wide variety of sources; since 2010, the top suppliers are China, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, the UK, and the US (2020)

Military deployments

200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,025 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 1,250 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2020)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2013)

Maritime threats

The International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks declined for the third year in a row from 43 incidents in 2016 to 36 in 2018 due to aggressive maritime patrolling by regional authorities; in 2018, 29 commercial vessels were boarded and three crew members were taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia (2018)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (aka Jemaah Anshorut Daulah); Jemaah Islamiyah (2020)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,866 (Afghanistan) (2019)

IDPs: 40,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2007 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2019)

stateless persons: 582 (2019)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers