Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



The Ottoman Empire controlled Kosovo from 1389 to 1912, when it once again became part of Serbia and then part of Yugoslavia in 1945. In 1999, Belgrade's brutal counterinsurgency campaign against the Kosovo Albanians resulted in a NATO military operation that ended the conflict. Kosovo declared its independence in 2008 and formally applied for EU membership in 2022.



total: 10,887 sq km
land: 10,887 sq km
water: 0 sq km


influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December

Natural resources

nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite

People and Society


total: 1,977,093
male: 1,017,992
female: 959,101 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Albanians 92.9%, Bosniaks 1.6%, Serbs 1.5%, Turk 1.1%, Ashkali 0.9%, Egyptian 0.7%, Gorani 0.6%, Romani 0.5%, other/unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Albanian (official) 94.5%, Bosnian 1.7%, Serbian (official) 1.6%, Turkish 1.1%, other 0.9% (includes Romani), unspecified 0.1%; note - in municipalities where a community's mother tongue is not one of Kosovo's official languages, the language of that community may be given official status according to the 2006 Law on the Use of Languages

note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minority languages because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo (2011 est.)


Muslim 95.6%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Orthodox 1.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.68% (2024 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (since 4 April 2021)
head of government: Prime Minister Albin KURTI (since 22 March 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi i Kosoves/Skupstina Kosova (120 seats; 100 members directly elected by open-list proportional representation vote with 20 seats reserved for ethnic minorities - 10 for Serbs and 10 for other ethnic minorities; members serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

small-but-growing European economy; non-EU member but unilateral euro user; very high unemployment, especially youth; vulnerable reliance on diaspora tourism services, curtailed by COVID-19 disruptions; unclear public loan portfolio health

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$22.333 billion (2022 est.)
$21.226 billion (2021 est.)
$19.166 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,700 (2022 est.)
$11,900 (2021 est.)
$10,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers, fruit; dairy, livestock; fish


mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles


$3.579 billion (2022 est.)
$3.138 billion (2021 est.)
$1.687 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 16%, Albania 15%, North Macedonia 12%, Germany 8%, Italy 8% (2021)

Exports - commodities

mattress materials, iron alloys, metal piping, scrap iron, building plastics, mineral water, seating (2021)


$6.661 billion (2022 est.)
$6.128 billion (2021 est.)
$4.187 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 13%, Turkey 13%, China 10%, Serbia 7%, Italy 6% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, iron rods, electricity, cigars, packaged medicines (2021)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.951 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.877 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, July 08, 2024