Photos of Kosovo

There are no photos for Kosovo.

Introduction

Background

The western Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule, during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced Serbs as the majority ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over the region during the First Balkan War of 1912, and Kosovo's present-day boundaries were established after World War II when it became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Increasing Albanian nationalism in the 1980s led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence, but in 1989, Belgrade -- which has served as the capital of Serbia and Yugoslavia in turn -- instituted a new constitution revoking Kosovo's autonomous status. When SFRY broke up in 1991, Kosovo remained part of Serbia, which later joined with Montenegro to declare a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in 1992.

In 1991, Kosovo Albanian leaders organized a referendum declaring the province independent, and Belgrade responded with repressive measures that led to an insurgency. In 1998, Belgrade launched a brutal counterinsurgency campaign, with some 800,000 ethnic Albanians expelled from their homes in Kosovo. After international mediation failed, a three-month NATO military operation against Yugoslavia began in March 1999 and forced Belgrade to agree to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under the temporary control of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of the province's future status. Negotiations in 2006-07 ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina, though the UN issued a comprehensive report that endorsed independence. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. At Serbia's request, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) reviewed the declaration and released an advisory opinion in 2010 affirming that international law did not prohibit it. The international community ended the period of Supervised Independence in 2012.

Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence, but the two countries began EU-facilitated discussions in 2013 to normalize their relations, which resulted in several agreements. Additional agreements were reached in 2015 and 2023, but implementation remains incomplete. In 2022, Kosovo formally applied for membership in the EU, which is contingent on fulfillment of accession criteria, and the Council of Europe. Kosovo is also seeking UN and NATO memberships.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia

Geographic coordinates

42 35 N, 21 00 E

Area

total: 10,887 sq km

land: 10,887 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 167

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Delaware

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 714 km

border countries (4): Albania 112 km; North Macedonia 160 km; Montenegro 76 km; Serbia 366 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December

Terrain

flat fluvial basin at an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m

Elevation

highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 m

lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim (located on the border with Albania) 297 m

mean elevation: 450 m

Natural resources

nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite

Land use

agricultural land: 52.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 27.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 41.7% (2018 est.)

other: 5.5% (2018 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina

Geography - note

the 41-km long Nerodimka River divides into two branches each of which flows into a different sea: the northern branch flows into the Sitnica River, which via the Ibar, Morava, and Danube Rivers ultimately flows into the Black Sea; the southern branch flows via the Lepenac and Vardar Rivers into the Aegean Sea

People and Society

Population

1,964,327 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 152

Nationality

noun: Kosovan

adjective: Kosovan

note: Kosovo, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective as in Kosovo Albanian, Kosovo Serb, Kosovo minority, or Kosovo citizen

Ethnic groups

Albanians 92.9%, Bosniaks 1.6%, Serbs 1.5%, Turk 1.1%, Ashkali 0.9%, Egyptian 0.7%, Gorani 0.6%, Romani 0.5%, other/unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo

Languages

Albanian (official) 94.5%, Bosnian 1.7%, Serbian (official) 1.6%, Turkish 1.1%, other 0.9% (includes Romani), unspecified 0.1%; note - in municipalities where a community's mother tongue is not one of Kosovo's official languages, the language of that community may be given official status according to the 2006 Law on the Use of Languages

note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minority languages because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s): Libri i fakteve boterore, burimi i pazevendesueshem per informacione elementare (Albanian)

Knjiga svetskih činjenica, neophodan izvor osnovnih informacija. (Serbian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Albanian audio sample:
Serbian language sample:

Religions

Muslim 95.6%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Orthodox 1.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)

note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.1% (male 235,379/female 218,359)

15-64 years: 68.75% (male 706,495/female 643,982)

65 years and over: 8.15% (2023 est.) (male 69,676/female 90,436)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 46.9

youth dependency ratio: 32.3

elderly dependency ratio: 14.6

potential support ratio: 6.9 (2021)

Median age

total: 31.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 31.3 years

female: 32 years

comparison ranking: total 116

Population growth rate

0.62% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Birth rate

14.6 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Death rate

7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 99

Net migration rate

-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 133

Population distribution

population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina

Major urban areas - population

218,782 PRISTINA (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 26.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 64

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.2 years (2023 est.)

male: 69.9 years

female: 74.5 years

comparison ranking: total population 160

Total fertility rate

1.88 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 130

Gross reproduction rate

0.91 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: NA

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: NA

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: NA

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution (pollution from power plants and nearby lignite mines take a toll on people's health); water scarcity and pollution; land degradation

Climate

influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December

Land use

agricultural land: 52.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 27.4% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 23.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 41.7% (2018 est.)

other: 5.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 165

Revenue from coal

0.31% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

Air pollutants

carbon dioxide emissions: 8.94 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.54 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 319,000 tons (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Kosovo

conventional short form: Kosovo

local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Albanian)/ Republika Kosovo (Serbian)

local short form: Kosove (Albanian)/ Kosovo (Serbian)

etymology: name derives from the Serbian "kos" meaning "blackbird," an ellipsis (linguistic omission) for "kosove polje" or "field of the blackbirds"

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)

geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the name may derive from a Proto-Slavic word reconstructed as "pryshchina," meaning "spring (of water)"

Administrative divisions

38 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna (Albanian); opstine, singular - opstina (Serbian)); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc (Glogovac), Gracanice (Gracanica), Hani i Elezit (Deneral Jankovic), Istog (Istok), Junik, Kacanik, Kamenice (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Kllokot (Klokot), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mamushe (Mamusa), Mitrovice e Jugut (Juzna Mitrovica) [South Mitrovica], Mitrovice e Veriut (Severna Mitrovica) [North Mitrovica], Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Partesh (Partes), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Ranillug (Ranilug), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan

Independence

17 February 2008 (from Serbia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 February (2008)

Constitution

history: previous 1974, 1990; latest (postindependence) draft finalized 2 April 2008, signed 7 April 2008, ratified 9 April 2008, entered into force 15 June 2008; note - amendment 24, passed by the Assembly in August 2015, established the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Institution, referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chamber or "Specialist Court," to try war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other crimes under Kosovo law committed during and immediately after the Kosovo War (1998-2000)

amendments: proposed by the government, by the president of the republic, or by one fourth of Assembly deputies; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, including two-thirds majority vote of deputies representing non-majority communities, followed by a favorable Constitutional Court assessment; amended several times, last in 2020

Legal system

civil law system; note - the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) retained limited executive powers within the Kosovo judiciary for complex cases from 2008 to 2018

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kosovo

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (since 4 April 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Albin KURTI (since 22 March 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly for a 5-year term; if a candidate does not attain a two-thirds threshold in the first two ballots, the candidate winning a simple majority vote in the third ballot is elected (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 to 4 April 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister indirectly elected by the Assembly

election results: 2021:  Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (Guxo!) 71 votes; Albin KURTI (LVV) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 67 for, 30 against

2017: Ramush HARADINAJ (AAK) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 61 for, 1 abstention, 0 against (opposition boycott)

2016: Hashim THACI elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Hashim THACI (PDK) 71 votes

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi i Kosoves/Skupstina Kosova (120 seats; 100 members directly elected by open-list proportional representation vote with 20 seats reserved for ethnic minorities - 10 for Serbs and 10 for other ethnic minorities; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 February 2021 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - LVV 50%, PDK 16.9%, LDK 12.7%, AAK 7.1%, Serb List 5.1%, other 8.2%; seats by party - LVV 58, PDK 19, LDK 15, Serb List 10, AAK 8, other 10; composition as of December 2021 - men 79, women 41, percent of women 34.2%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges and organized into Appeals Panel of the Kosovo Property Agency and Special Chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Judicial Council, a 13-member independent body staffed by judges and lay members, and also responsible for overall administration of Kosovo's judicial system; judges appointed by the president of the Republic of Kosovo; judges appointed until mandatory retirement age; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Assembly and appointed by the president of the republic to serve single, 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (organized into 4 departments: General, Serious Crime, Commercial Matters, and Administrative Matters); Basic Court (located in 7 municipalities, each with several branches)

note: in August 2015, the Kosovo Assembly approved a constitutional amendment that established the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution, also referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chambers or "Special Court"; the court, located at the Hague in the Netherlands, began operating in late 2016 and has jurisdiction to try crimes against humanity, war crimes, and other crimes under Kosovo law that occurred in the 1998-2000 period

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]
Ashkali Party for Integration or PAI [Bekim ARIFI]
Civic Initiative for Freedom, Justice, and Survival [Milan DABIC]
Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Lumir ABDIXHIKU]
Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Memli KRASNIQI]
New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Elbert KRASNIQI]
New Democratic Party or NDS [Emilja REDZEPI]
Progressive Movement of Kosovar Roma or LPRK [Erxhan GALJUSI]
Romani Initiative [Gazmend SALIJEVCI]
Self-Determination Movement (Lëvizja Vetevendosje or Vetevendosie) or LVV or VV [Albin KURTI]
Serb List or SL [Goran RAKIC]
Social Democratic Union or SDU [Duda BALJE]
Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo or KDTP [Fikrim DAMKA]
Unique Gorani Party or JGP [Adem HODZA]
Vakat Coalition or VAKAT [Bahrim SABANI]

International organization participation

IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ilir DUGOLLI (since 13 January 2022)

chancery: 3612 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, D.C. 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 450-2130

FAX: [1] (202) 735-0609

email address and website:
embassy.usa@rks-gov.net

U.S. Embassies of the Republic of Kosovo (ambasadat.net)

consulate(s) general: New York

consulate(s): Des Moines (IA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey M. HOVENIER (since 10 January 2022)

embassy: Arberia/Dragodan, Rr.  4 KORRIKU Nr. 25, Pristina

mailing address: 9520 Pristina Place, Washington DC  20521-9520

telephone: [383] 38-59-59-3000

FAX: [383] 38-604-890

email address and website:
PristinaACS@state.gov

https://xk.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

centered on a dark blue field is a gold-colored silhouette of Kosovo surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc; each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks

note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Cyprus is the other

National symbol(s)

six, five-pointed, white stars; national colors: blue, gold, white

National anthem

name: Europe

lyrics/music: no lyrics/Mendi MENGJIQI

note: adopted 2008; Kosovo chose to exclude lyrics in its anthem so as not to offend the country's minority ethnic groups

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Medieval Monuments in Kosovo

Economy

Economic overview

small-but-growing European economy; non-EU member but unilateral euro user; very high unemployment, especially youth; vulnerable reliance on diaspora tourism services, curtailed by COVID-19 disruptions; unclear public loan portfolio health

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$21.226 billion (2021 est.)
$19.166 billion (2020 est.)
$20.247 billion (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 151

Real GDP growth rate

10.75% (2021 est.)
-5.34% (2020 est.)
4.76% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 23

Real GDP per capita

$11,900 (2021 est.)
$10,700 (2020 est.)
$11,300 (2019 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 132

GDP (official exchange rate)

$7.926 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.35% (2021 est.)
0.2% (2020 est.)
2.68% (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 115

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 11.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 17.7% (2017 est.)

services: 70.4% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 65; industry 165; agriculture 79

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 84.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 13.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 29% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2016 est.)

exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -53.8% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers, fruit; dairy, livestock; fish

Industries

mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles

Industrial production growth rate

7.76% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 55

Labor force

500,300 (2017 est.)

note: includes those estimated to be employed in the gray economy

comparison ranking: 160

Unemployment rate

30.5% (2017 est.)
27.5% (2016 est.)

note: Kosovo has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data

comparison ranking: 225

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 48.8% (2020 est.)

male: 44.9%

female: 57.3%

comparison ranking: total 5

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 22% (2015 est.)

Remittances

17.95% of GDP (2021 est.)
18.61% of GDP (2020 est.)
15.81% of GDP (2019 est.)

Budget

revenues: $1.951 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $2.547 billion (2020 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 107

Public debt

21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 187

Taxes and other revenues

29% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 30

Current account balance

-$818.351 million (2021 est.)
-$541.106 million (2020 est.)
-$447.233 million (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 135

Exports

$3.138 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$1.687 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$2.312 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 149

Exports - partners

United States 16%, Albania 15%, North Macedonia 12%, Germany 8%, Italy 8% (2021)

Exports - commodities

mattress materials, iron alloys, metal piping, scrap iron, building plastics, mineral water, seating (2021)

Imports

$6.128 billion (2021 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.187 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars
$4.454 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

comparison ranking: 134

Imports - partners

Germany 13%, Turkey 13%, China 10%, Serbia 7%, Italy 6% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, iron rods, electricity, cigars, packaged medicines (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.244 billion (31 December 2021 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2020 est.)
$965.832 million (31 December 2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Debt - external

$2.388 billion (2019 est.)
$2.409 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 150

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.877 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

note: Kosovo, which is neither an EU member state nor a party to a formal EU monetary agreement, uses the euro as its de facto currency

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 1.424 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 4,860,740,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 2.715 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 2.572 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.145 billion kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 56; exports 44; installed generating capacity 127; transmission/distribution losses 104; consumption 125

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 95.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 1.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 3.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 8.538 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 8.549 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 9,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 20,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 1.564 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

refined petroleum consumption: 12,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 164

Refined petroleum products - exports

192 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Refined petroleum products - imports

14,040 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

8.009 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 6.1 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 1.909 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 114

Energy consumption per capita

51.462 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 99

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 383,763 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 25 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 101

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 1,777,859 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 98 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 157

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Kosovo has benefited from financial and regulatory assistance as part of the EU pre-accession process; the telecom sector has been liberalized, and legislation has aligned the sector with the EU’s revised regulatory framework; infrastructure development includes WiMax and other municipal wireless internet services; digitalization of TV broadcasting; network upgrades include a 5G roll-out in the coming years (2022 )

domestic: fixed-line roughly 25 per 100 and mobile-cellular 98 per 100 persons (2022)

international: country code - 383

Internet country code

.xk; note - assigned as a temporary code under UN Security Council resolution 1244/99

 

Internet users

total: 1,756,300 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 91% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 139

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 0 (2020)

Airports

4 (2024)

comparison ranking: 178

Heliports

6 (2024)

Railways

total: 437 km (2020)

comparison ranking: total 116

Roadways

total: 2,248 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 172

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Kosovo Security Force (KSF; Forca e Sigurisë së Kosovës or FSK): Land Force, National Guard (2024)

note: the Kosovo Police are under the Ministry of Internal Affairs

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2022 est.)
2% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.1% of GDP (2020 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
0.8% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 3,300 KSF personnel, including about 800 reserves (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the KSF is equipped with small arms and light vehicles and has relied on limited amounts of donated equipment from several countries, particularly Turkey and the US (2023)

Military service age and obligation

any citizen of Kosovo over the age of 18 is eligible to serve in the Kosovo Security Force; upper age for enlisting is 30 for officers, 25 for other ranks, although these may be waived for recruits with key skills considered essential for the KSF
(2024)

Military - note

the Kosovo Security Force (KSF) was established in 2009 as a small (1,500 personnel), lightly armed disaster response force; the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) was charged with assisting in the development of the KSF and bringing it up to standards designated by NATO; the KSF was certified as fully operational by the North Atlantic Council in 2013, indicating the then 2,200-strong KSF was entirely capable of performing the tasks assigned under its mandate, which included non-military security functions that were not appropriate for the police, plus missions such as search and rescue, explosive ordnance disposal, control and clearance of hazardous materials, firefighting, and other humanitarian assistance tasks; in 2019, Kosovo approved legislation that began a process to transition the KSF by 2028 into a professional military (the Kosovo Armed Forces) led by a General Staff and comprised of a Land Force, a National Guard, a Logistics Command, and a Doctrine and Training Command; it would have a strength of up to 5,000 with about 3,000 reserves; at the same time, the KSF’s mission was expanded to include traditional military functions, such as territorial defense and international peacekeeping; the KSF’s first international mission was the deployment of a small force to Kuwait in 2021 

the NATO-led KFOR has operated in the country as a peace support force since 1999; in addition to assisting in the development of the KSF, KFOR is responsible for providing a safe and secure environment and ensuring freedom of movement for all citizens; it numbers about 3,700 troops from 27 countries; Kosovo regards the US as a key ally and security guarantor, and the US has provided considerable support to the KSF, including equipment and training (2023)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Kosovo-Albania: none identified

Kosovo-Montenegro: their 2015 demarcation agreement was ratified by Montenegro in December 2015 and by Kosovo in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

Kosovo-North Macedonia: Kosovo and North Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; both countries ratified the demarcation documents on October 17, 2009, after high-level consultations resolved the disputed section of border around Debelde/Tanusevci

Kosovo-Serbia: Serbia has not recognized Kosovo's independence, and Belgrade continues to claim it as its territory; the 2013 Brussels Agreement launched a process of EU-facilitated normalization between Serbia and Kosovo process, a prerequisite for their EU accession; in February and March 2023, both the two countries accepted the Agreement on the Path to Normalization and its Implementation Annex, whose implementation remains incomplete



note: NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers deployed under UN Security Council Resolution 1244 continue to ensure a safe and secure environment and freedom of movement for all Kosovo citizens; in September 2023, KFOR deployed additional forces in the north of Kosovo and increased patrols along the border with Serbia after Kosovo-Serb paramilitaries attacked Kosovo police near the town of Banjska; some of Kosovo’s ethnic Serb minority, most of whom live in the northern regions, view themselves as part of Serbia, and Serbian municipalities along the northern border have challenged the final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; some protests have turned violent 

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 16,000 (primarily ethnic Serbs displaced during the 1998-1999 war fearing reprisals from the majority ethnic-Albanian population; a smaller number of ethnic Serbs, Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians fled their homes in 2004 as a result of violence) (2022)

note: 9,011 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2023)