Kyrgyzstan

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved.

Geography

Area

total: 199,951 sq km

land: 191,801 sq km

water: 8,150 sq km

Climate

dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Natural resources

abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

People and Society

Population

6,071,750 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Kyrgyz 73.8%, Uzbek 14.8%, Russian 5.1%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.2% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2021 est.)

Languages

Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)

Religions

Muslim 90% (majority Sunni), Christian 7% (Russian Orthodox 3%), other 3% (includes Jewish, Buddhist, Baha'i) (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

0.86% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Bishkek

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

head of government: President Sadyr JAPAROV (2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (90 seats statutory, current 88; 54 seats allocated for proportional division among political party lists from the national vote and 36 seats allocated for candidates running in single-seat constituencies; members serve 5-year terms; parties must receive 5% of the vote to win seats in the Council)

Economy

Economic overview

landlocked, lower-middle-income Central Asian economy; natural resource rich; growing hydroelectricity and tourism; high remittances; corruption limits investment; COVID-19 and political turmoil hurt GDP, limited public revenues, and increased spending

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$31.02 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$4,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, sugar beet, maize, wheat, barley, tomatoes, watermelons, onions, carrots/turnips

Industries

small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Exports

$3.11 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 56%, Kazakhstan 13%, Russia 13%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, precious metals, various beans, refined petroleum, scrap copper (2019)

Imports

$5.67 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 53%, Russia 17%, Kazakhstan 7%, Uzbekistan 7%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, footwear, clothing and apparel, broadcasting equipment, walnuts (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022