Photos of Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek, formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. The Manas Sculptural Complex, completed in 1981, is located in the heart of the city. The main statue depicts a legendary hero, Manas, on a magical horse who slays an evil dragon. The Manas poem is the classic centerpiece of Kyrgyz literature, and parts of the epic are often recited at Kyrgyz festivities.



A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the country’s first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Roza OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyzstani president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in the country’s constitution. Former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbay JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in the country’s history, although international and local election observers noted cases of vote buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyzstani Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, and nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, and at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.

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Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates

41 00 N, 75 00 E


total: 199,951 sq km

land: 191,801 sq km

water: 8,150 sq km

country comparison to the world: 87

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries

total: 4,573 km

border countries (4): China 1063 km, Kazakhstan 1212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1314 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone


peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country


highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m

mean elevation: 2,988 m

Natural resources

abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use

agricultural land: 55.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 48.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 5.1% (2018 est.)

other: 39.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

10,233 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains

Natural hazards

major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes

Geography - note

landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Aral Sea drainage (endorheic basin): Amu Darya (534,739 sq km), Syr Darya (782,617 sq km)
Tarim Basin drainage (endorheic basin): Tarim Basin (1,152,448 sq km)

People and Society


noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)

adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Ethnic groups

Kyrgyz 73.5%, Uzbek 14.7%, Russian 5.5%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.2% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2019 est.)


Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Дүйнөлүк фактылар китеби, негизги маалыматтын маанилүү булагы. (Kyrgyz)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.


Muslim 90% (majority Sunni), Christian 7% (Russian Orthodox 3%), other 3% (includes Jewish, Buddhist, Baha'i) (2017 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 30.39% (male 930,455/female 882,137)

15-24 years: 15.7% (male 475,915/female 460,604)

25-54 years: 40.02% (male 1,172,719/female 1,214,624)

55-64 years: 8.09% (male 210,994/female 271,480)

65 years and over: 5.8% (male 132,134/female 213,835) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Kyrgyzstan. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 59.7

youth dependency ratio: 52.1

elderly dependency ratio: 7.5

potential support ratio: 13.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 27.3 years

male: 26.1 years

female: 28.5 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Birth rate

20.06 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Death rate

6.18 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Net migration rate

-4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 199

Population distribution

the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains


urban population: 37.1% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.060 million BISHKEK (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.6 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Infant mortality rate

total: 26.26 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 30.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.07 years

male: 67.97 years

female: 76.45 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.1% of population

rural: 84.4% of population

total: 89.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population

rural: 15.6% of population

total: 10.7% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.21 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

4.4 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.6% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.1% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2020 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.6%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.5% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 9.6%

male: 7.8%

female: 13.4% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 130


Environment - current issues

water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices; air pollution due to rapid increase of traffic

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 18.12 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 9.79 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.47 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 224 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 336 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 7.1 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

23.618 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Land use

agricultural land: 55.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.4% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 48.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 5.1% (2018 est.)

other: 39.5% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.21% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21


urban population: 37.1% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1,113,300 tons (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Aral Sea drainage (endorheic basin): Amu Darya (534,739 sq km), Syr Darya (782,617 sq km)
Tarim Basin drainage (endorheic basin): Tarim Basin (1,152,448 sq km)


Country name

conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic

conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan

local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy

local short form: Kyrgyzstan

former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the Forty Tribes"; the name refers to the 40 clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Bishkek

geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: founded in 1868 as a Russian settlement on the site of a previously destroyed fortress named "Pishpek"; the name was retained and overtime became "Bishkek"

Administrative divisions

7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 31 August (1991)


history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - constitutional amendments that bolstered some presidential powers and transferred others from the president to the prime minister were passed in late 2017

amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017, 2021; note - among the changes included in the 2021 amendment are the reduction of the Supreme Council membership to 90 seats from 120 and the establishment of the People's Kurultai (Assembly), described as "a consultative and coordinating organ"

Legal system

civil law system, which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan

dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Ulukbek MARIPOV (since 3 February 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 10 January 2021 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council

election results: Sadyr JAPAROV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sadyr JAPAROV 79.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV 6.5%, other 14%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; parties directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members selected from party lists; winning parties limited to no more than 65 seats; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 October 2020 (next to be held NA); note - the results of the 2020 election were annulled on 6 October 2020 following mass protests

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts

subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts

Political parties and leaders

Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Almambet SHYKMAMATOV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAYMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BAATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress (Development-Progress) [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Jyrgalbek TURUSKULOV] (parliamentary faction)
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV, Isa OMURKULOV]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Baktybek AMANBAYEV (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822

FAX: [1] (202) 449-8275

email address and website:;

honorary consulate(s): Maple Valley (WA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alan MELTZER (July 2021)

embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016

mailing address: 7040 Bishkek Place, Washington DC  20521-7040

telephone: [996] (312) 597-000

FAX: [996] (312) 597-744

email address and website:

Flag description

red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth

National symbol(s)

white falcon; national colors: red, yellow

National anthem

name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)

lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV

note: adopted 1992


Economic overview

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states are hurting certain sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production, in which they have comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process as disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstan’s economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$33.918 billion (2019 est.)

$32.455 billion (2018 est.)

$31.28 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 134

Real GDP growth rate

4.6% (2017 est.)

4.3% (2016 est.)

3.9% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Real GDP per capita

$5,253 (2019 est.)

$5,133 (2018 est.)

$5,047 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 172

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.442 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.1% (2019 est.)

1.5% (2018 est.)

3.1% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B2 (2015)

Standard & Poors rating: NR (2016)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 14.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.2% (2017 est.)

services: 54.2% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 85.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 33.2% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 39.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -79% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, sugar beet, maize, wheat, barley, tomatoes, watermelons, onions, carrots/turnips


small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 48%

industry: 12.5%

services: 39.5% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.4%

highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)


revenues: 2.169 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.409 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

56% of GDP (2017 est.)

55.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$306 million (2017 est.)

-$792 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109


$2.742 billion (2019 est.)

$2.288 billion (2018 est.)

$2.352 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 56%, Kazakhstan 13%, Russia 13%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, precious metals, various beans, refined petroleum, scrap copper (2019)


$5.477 billion (2019 est.)

$5.32 billion (2018 est.)

$4.953 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Imports - partners

China 53%, Russia 17%, Kazakhstan 7%, Uzbekistan 7%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, footwear, clothing and apparel, broadcasting equipment, walnuts (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.177 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$1.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Debt - external

$8.372 billion (2019 est.)

$8.066 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Exchange rates

soms (KGS) per US dollar -

68.35 (2017 est.)

69.914 (2016 est.)

69.914 (2015 est.)

64.462 (2014 est.)

53.654 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 298,855

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5.06 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 8,622,565

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145.98 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Telecommunication systems

general assessment:

fixed-line declining as 4G LTE mobile is universally available; brief interruptions of service with security as pretext; ICT sector rocked by allegation of corruption in 2020; digital radio-relay stations and fiber-optic links; 5G in development; importer of broadcasting equipment from UAE and computers from China; Chinese Economic Corridor investment into domestic backbone; World Bank investment into digital infrastructure with aims to provide broadband Internet to 60% of the population; social disparity evident in pandemic as many school children could not attend classes on-line (2021)

(2020 )

domestic: fixed-line penetration 5 per 100 persons remains low and concentrated in urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 134 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States, 9 members post-Soviet Republics in EU) countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

state-funded public TV broadcaster KTRK has nationwide coverage; also operates Ala-Too 24 news channel which broadcasts 24/7 and 4 other educational, cultural, and sports channels; ELTR and Channel 5 are state-owned stations with national reach; the switchover to digital TV in 2017 resulted in private TV station growth; approximately 20 stations are struggling to increase their own content up to 50% of airtime, as required by law, instead of rebroadcasting primarily programs from Russian channels or airing unlicensed movies and music; 3 Russian TV stations also broadcast; state-funded radio stations and about 10 significant private radio stations also exist (2019)

Internet users

total: 2,222,732

percent of population: 38% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 269,091

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4.56 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 17

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 709,198 (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 18

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

under 914 m: 3 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 8 (2013)


3566 km gas (2018), 16 km oil (2013)


total: 424 km (2018)

broad gauge: 424 km 1.520-m gauge (2018)

country comparison to the world: 118

Ports and terminals

lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Kyrgyz Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, National Guard; State Border Service; Internal Troops (2021)

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.5% of GDP (2019)

1.6% of GDP (2018)

1.6% of GDP (2017)

1.7% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 83

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Kyrgyz Armed Forces have approximately 12,000 active duty troops (8,500 Land Forces; 2,500 Air Force/Air Defense; 1,000 National Guard) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Kyrgyz Armed Forces' inventory is comprised of older Russian and Soviet-era equipment; Kyrgyzstan relies on donations of military equipment, which come mostly from Russia under a 2013 agreement between Bishkek and Moscow (2021)

Military deployments

contributes forces to CSTO's Rapid Reaction Force (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation (9 months for university graduates), with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2019)

Military - note

Kyrgyzstan has been a member of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) since 1994 and contributes troops to CSTO's rapid reaction force

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of approximately 15% or 200 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 18 (2020)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Kyrgyzstan and Kyrgyzstanis abroad; Kyrgyz men, women, and children are exploited in forced labor in Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey and other European countries specifically in agriculture, construction, textiles, domestic service, and childcare; sex traffickers exploit Kyrgyz women and girls domestically and in India, Kazakhstan, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates; problems with police misconduct and corruption include allegations that police threaten and extort sex trafficking victims and accept bribes from alleged traffickers to drop cases; street children who beg or do domestic work are vulnerable to traffickers

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Kyrgyzstan does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government adopted a National Referral Mechanism (NRM) that established formal policies on victim identification and the provision of social services;  the government established an interagency focus group to accelerate implementation of the NRM and improve law enforcement investigations; authorities increased investigations but did not prosecute or convict any traffickers; the government conducted limited training on the NRM; some officials reportedly  dropped charges or tipped off suspects and allowed victims to be pressured or paid to drop charges against alleged traffickers; the government’s written plan, if implemented, would meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, Kyrgyzstan was granted a waiver per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 (2020)

Illicit drugs

limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates