Kyrgyzstan

Country Summary

Introduction

Background

A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved.

Geography

Area

total: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km

Climate

dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

Natural resources

abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

People and Society

Population

6,122,781 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Kyrgyz 73.8%, Uzbek 14.8%, Russian 5.1%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.2% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2021 est.)

Languages

Kyrgyz (state language) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official language) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)

Religions

Muslim 90% (majority Sunni), Christian 7% (Russian Orthodox 3%), other 3% (includes Jewish, Buddhist, Baha'i) (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

0.82% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Bishkek

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (90 seats statutory, current 88; 54 seats allocated for proportional division among political party lists from the national vote and 36 seats allocated for candidates running in single-seat constituencies; members serve 5-year terms; parties must receive 5% of the vote to win seats in the Council)

Economy

Economic overview

landlocked, lower-middle-income Central Asian economy; natural resource rich; growing hydroelectricity and tourism; high remittances; corruption limits investment; COVID-19 and political turmoil hurt GDP, limited public revenues, and increased spending

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$35.364 billion (2022 est.)
$33.258 billion (2021 est.)
$31.522 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$5,100 (2022 est.)
$4,900 (2021 est.)
$4,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, sugar beets, maize, wheat, barley, tomatoes, watermelons, onions, carrots/turnips

Industries

small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals

Exports

$3.628 billion (2022 est.)
$3.292 billion (2021 est.)
$2.435 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 56%, Kazakhstan 13%, Russia 13%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, float glass, precious metals, kidney beans, refined petroleum, scrap copper, dried fruits (2021)

Imports

$10.655 billion (2022 est.)
$5.928 billion (2021 est.)
$4.051 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 53%, Russia 17%, Kazakhstan 7%, Uzbekistan 7%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, footwear, clothing and apparel, broadcasting equipment, walnuts (2019)

Exchange rates

soms (KGS) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
84.116 (2022 est.)
84.641 (2021 est.)
77.346 (2020 est.)
69.789 (2019 est.)
68.84 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, April 17, 2024