Lebanon

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.

Geography

Area

total: 10,400 sq km

land: 10,230 sq km

water: 170 sq km

Climate

Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows

Natural resources

limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land

People and Society

Population

5,296,814 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Languages

Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian

Religions

Muslim 67.8% (31.9% Sunni, 31.2% Shia, smaller percentages of Alawites and Ismailis), Christian 32.4% (Maronite Catholics are the largest Christian group), Druze 4.5%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, and Hindus (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

0.66% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Beirut

Executive branch

chief of state: President Michel AWN (since 31 October 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Najib MIQATI (since 20 September 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab in Arabic or Assemblee Nationale in French (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-member constituencies by listed-based proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); prior to 2017, the electoral system was by majoritarian vote

Economy

Economic overview

upper middle-income Middle Eastern economy; economic activity hurt by economic depression, COVID-19, and port explosion; hyperinflation and sharp poverty increases; banks have ceased lending; new financing facility helping with recovery

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$79.51 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,600 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

potatoes, milk, tomatoes, apples, oranges, olives, wheat, cucumbers, poultry, lemons

Industries

banking, tourism, real estate and construction, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating

Exports

$18.17 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Switzerland 27%, United Arab Emirates 15%, South Korea 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, Kuwait 6% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, jewelry, shotguns, diamonds, scrap copper (2019)

Imports

$31.34 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 11%, China 10%, Italy 8%, Greece 8%, Turkey 7%, United States 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, jewelry, gold (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, Jun 15, 2022