Lithuania

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Lithuanian lands were united in 1236. Over the next century, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. The USSR annexed Lithuania in 1940. In 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence.

Geography

Area

total: 65,300 sq km
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km

Climate

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Natural resources

peat, arable land, amber

People and Society

Population

total: 2,628,186
male: 1,214,994
female: 1,413,192 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Lithuanian 84.6%, Polish 6.5%, Russian 5%, Belarusian 1%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.8% (2021 est.)

Languages

Lithuanian (official) 85.3%, Russian 6.8%, Polish 5.1%, other 1.1%, two mother tongues 1.7% (2021 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 74.2%, Russian Orthodox 3.7%, Old Believer 0.6%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.9%, none 6.1%, unspecified 13.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.05% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Vilnius

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)
head of government: Prime Minister Ingrida SIMONYTE (since 24 November 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, EU-member, largest Baltic economy; privatized most state-owned enterprises; unmoved youth emigration; systemic corruption; issued Europe’s first bank-backed digital coin (LBCOIN); highly educated workforce; lowest EU household debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$113.139 billion (2022 est.)
$110.444 billion (2021 est.)
$103.913 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$40,000 (2022 est.)
$39,400 (2021 est.)
$37,200 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, rapeseed, sugar beets, barley, potatoes, beans, triticale, oats, peas (2022)

Industries

metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology

Exports

$61.444 billion (2022 est.)
$53.397 billion (2021 est.)
$41.721 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Latvia 13%, Poland 8%, Germany 8%, Russia 6%, US 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, furniture, plastic products, natural gas, wheat (2022)

Imports

$62.853 billion (2022 est.)
$50.377 billion (2021 est.)
$36.414 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Poland 12%, Germany 11%, Latvia 8%, US 6%, Russia 5% (2022)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, cars, plastic products (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 22, 2024