Lithuania

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Lithuanian lands were united in 1236. Over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence.

Geography

Area

total: 65,300 sq km

land: 62,680 sq km

water: 2,620 sq km

Climate

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Natural resources

peat, arable land, amber

People and Society

Population

2,683,546 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Lithuanian 84.6%, Polish 6.5%, Russian 5%, Belarusian 1%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.8% (2021 est.)

Languages

Lithuanian (official) 85.3%, Russian 6.8%, Polish 5.1%, other 1.1%, two mother tongues 1.7%% (2021 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 74.2%, Russian Orthodox 3.7%, Old Believer 0.6%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.9%, none 6.1%, unspecified 13.7% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.04% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Vilnius

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ingrida SIMONYTE (since 24 November 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, EU-member, largest Baltic economy; privatized most state-owned enterprises; unmoved youth emigration; systemic corruption; issued Europe’s first bank-backed digital coin (LBCOIN); highly educated workforce; lowest EU household debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$102.66 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$36,700 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, sugar beet, rapeseed, barley, triticale, potatoes, oats, peas, beans

Industries

metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology

Exports

$41.48 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Russia 13%, Latvia 9%, Poland 8%, Germany 7%, Estonia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, furniture, cigarettes, wheat, polyethylene (2019)

Imports

$36.06 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Poland 12%, Russia 12%, Germany 12%, Latvia 7%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, refined petroleum, electricity (2019)


Page last updated: Tuesday, May 31, 2022