Photos of Lithuania

Introduction

Background

Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into West European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone, and it joined the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2018.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus

Geographic coordinates

56 00 N, 24 00 E

Area

total: 65,300 sq km

land: 62,680 sq km

water: 2,620 sq km

comparison ranking: total 123

Area - comparative

slightly larger than West Virginia

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,545 km

border countries (4): Belarus 640 km; Latvia 544 km; Poland 100 km; Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain

lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation

highest point: Aukstojas 294 m

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 110 m

Natural resources

peat, arable land, amber

Land use

agricultural land: 44.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 34.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.6% (2018 est.)

other: 20.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

16 sq km (2013)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Curonian Lagoon (shared with Russia) - 1,620 sq km

Population distribution

fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda

Natural hazards

occasional floods, droughts

Geography - note

fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

People and Society

Population

2,655,755 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 142

Nationality

noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups

Lithuanian 84.6%, Polish 6.5%, Russian 5%, Belarusian 1%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.8% (2021 est.)

Languages

Lithuanian (official) 85.3%, Russian 6.8%, Polish 5.1%, other 1.1%, two mother tongues 1.7% (2021 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Pasaulio enciklopedija – naudingas bendrosios informacijos šaltinis. (Lithuanian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Roman Catholic 74.2%, Russian Orthodox 3.7%, Old Believer 0.6%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.9%, none 6.1%, unspecified 13.7% (2021 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.3% (male 208,669/female 197,728)

15-64 years: 63.11% (male 821,319/female 854,763)

65 years and over: 21.59% (2023 est.) (male 197,217/female 376,059)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.7

youth dependency ratio: 23.6

elderly dependency ratio: 32.1

potential support ratio: 3.1 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 45 years (2023 est.)

male: 40.6 years

female: 49 years

comparison ranking: total 19

Population growth rate

-1.04% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 231

Birth rate

9.1 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 199

Death rate

15.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 2

Net migration rate

-4.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 198

Population distribution

fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda

Urbanization

urban population: 68.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

541,000 VILNIUS (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.2 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

9 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 146

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 194

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76 years (2023 est.)

male: 70.6 years

female: 81.6 years

comparison ranking: total population 111

Total fertility rate

1.61 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 182

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 93.8% of population

total: 98% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 6.2% of population

total: 2% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.5% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

5.08 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

6.4 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.5% of population

rural: 88.7% of population

total: 96% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population

rural: 11.3% of population

total: 4% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2023)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

26.3% (2016)

comparison ranking: 43

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 11.93 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 4.61 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.88 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 4.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 1.48 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 4

Tobacco use

total: 32% (2020 est.)

male: 42.1% (2020 est.)

female: 21.8% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 20

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

2.5% (2021) NA

comparison ranking: 97

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0.3% (2021 est.)

Education expenditures

4% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 116

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

water pollution; air pollution; deforestation; threatened animal and plant species; chemicals and waste materials released into the environment contaminate soil and groundwater; soil degradation and erosion

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Land use

agricultural land: 44.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 34.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 9.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 34.6% (2018 est.)

other: 20.6% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 68.7% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.12% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.31% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 80

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 141

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.37 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 12.96 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 3.15 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 1.3 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 297,960 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 22.9% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

salt water lake(s): Curonian Lagoon (shared with Russia) - 1,620 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 140 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 60 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

24.5 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania

conventional short form: Lithuania

local long form: Lietuvos Respublika

local short form: Lietuva

former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (while occupied by the USSR)

etymology: meaning of the name "Lietuva" remains unclear and is debated by scholars; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania

Government type

semi-presidential republic

Capital

name: Vilnius

geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after the Vilnia River, which flows into the Neris River at Vilnius; the river name derives from the Lithuanian word "vilnis" meaning "a surge"

Administrative divisions

60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstonas, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarija, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavas, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai

Independence

16 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia and Germany); 11 March 1990 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date); 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)

National holiday

Independence Day (or National Day), 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992

amendments: proposed by at least one fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ingrida SIMONYTE (since 24 November 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 and 26 May 2019 (next to be held on 12 May 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

election results:
2019:
Gitanas NAUSEDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Gitanas NAUSEDA (independent) 66.7%, Ingrida SIMONYTE (independent) 33.3%

2014: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59.1%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (Social Democratic Party) 40.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
last held on 11 and 25 October 2020 (next to be held on 13 October 2024)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TS-LKD 50, LVZS 32, LSDP 13, LRLS 13, LP 11, DP 10, LLRA-KSS 3, LSDDP 3, LT 1, LZP 1, independent 4; composition as of February 2024 - men 99, women 41, percentage women 29.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Seimas from nominations - 3 each by the president of the republic, the Seimas chairperson, and the Supreme Court president; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts

Political parties and leaders

Democrats for Lithuania [Saulius SKVERNELIS]
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]
Freedom and Justice Party or LT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS] (formerly Lithuanian Freedom Union (Liberals))
Freedom Party or LP [Ausrine ARMONAITE]
Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]
Labor Party or DP [Andrius MAZURONIS]
Lithuanian Center Party or LCP [Naglis PUTEIKIS]
Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]
Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Remigijus LAPINSKAS]
Lithuanian Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Viktorija CMILYTE-NIELSEN]
Lithuanian List or LL [Darius KUOLYS]
Lithuanian Regions Party or LRP [Jonas PINSKUS] (formerly Lithuanian Social Democratic Labor Party or LSDDP)
Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Vilija BLINKEVICIUTE]

International organization participation

Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHRC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Audra PLEPYTE (since 7 July 2021)

chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860

FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466

email address and website:
info@usa.mfa.lt

https://usa.mfa.lt/usa/en/

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d’Affaires Tamir WASER (since 12 August 2023)

embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106

mailing address: 4510 Vilnius Place, Washington DC  20521-4510

telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500

FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510

email address and website:
consec@state.gov

https://lt.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland

National symbol(s)

mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red

National anthem

name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)

lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 5 (all cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Vilnius Historic Center; Curonian Spit; Kernavė Archaeological Site; Struve Geodetic Arc; Modernist Kaunas: Architecture of Optimism, 1919-1939

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, EU-member, largest Baltic economy; privatized most state-owned enterprises; unmoved youth emigration; systemic corruption; issued Europe’s first bank-backed digital coin (LBCOIN); highly educated workforce; lowest EU household debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$113.139 billion (2022 est.)
$110.444 billion (2021 est.)
$103.913 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 88

Real GDP growth rate

2.44% (2022 est.)
6.28% (2021 est.)
-0.02% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 157

Real GDP per capita

$40,000 (2022 est.)
$39,400 (2021 est.)
$37,200 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 53

GDP (official exchange rate)

$70.974 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

19.71% (2022 est.)
4.68% (2021 est.)
1.2% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 198

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: A (2020)

Moody's rating: A3 (2015)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 29.4% (2017 est.)

services: 67.2% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 86; industry 81; agriculture 146

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 16.6% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 18.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 81.6% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -79.3% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, sugar beets, rapeseeds, barley, triticale, potatoes, oats, peas, beans

Industries

metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate

2.78% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 121

Labor force

1.489 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 134

Unemployment rate

5.96% (2022 est.)
7.11% (2021 est.)
8.49% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 121

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 19% (2021 est.)

male: 18.5%

female: 19.6%

comparison ranking: total 88

Population below poverty line

20.9% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

36 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 90

Average household expenditures

on food: 21.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 5.9% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 28.5% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

1.04% of GDP (2022 est.)
1.16% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.39% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $18.636 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $18.491 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 38

Public debt

48.63% of GDP (2021 est.)
53.31% of GDP (2020 est.)
42.6% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 112

Taxes and other revenues

21.27% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 79

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$3.874 billion (2022 est.)
$766.788 million (2021 est.)
$4.161 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 167

Exports

$61.444 billion (2022 est.)
$53.397 billion (2021 est.)
$41.721 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 61

Exports - partners

Russia 10%, Latvia 9%, Germany 8%, Poland 7%, United States 6% (2021)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, wooden furniture, wheat, laboratory reagents, cigarettes (2021)

Imports

$62.853 billion (2022 est.)
$50.377 billion (2021 est.)
$36.414 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 61

Imports - partners

Poland 12%, Germany 12%, Russia 11%, Latvia 8%, Netherlands 5% (2021)

Imports - commodities

crude petroleum, cars, electricity, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, natural gas (2021)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$5.365 billion (2022 est.)
$5.58 billion (2021 est.)
$4.847 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 98

Debt - external

$37.859 billion (2019 est.)
$41.999 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 78

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 3.512 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 11.063 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 4.105 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 12.013 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 951 million kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 100; imports 21; exports 40; consumption 96; installed generating capacity 102

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 38% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 35.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 16.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 0

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 0GW

Percent of total electricity production: 0%

Percent of total energy produced: 0%

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 2

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 221,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 75,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 268,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 4,000 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 68,000 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 194,900 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

196,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 51

Refined petroleum products - exports

174,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 32

Refined petroleum products - imports

42,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 87

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 2.231 billion cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 497.923 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 2.819 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

14.503 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 693,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 9.488 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 4.322 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 96

Energy consumption per capita

101.651 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 58

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 249,573 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 117

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,726,653 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 136

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Lithuania’s small telecoms market is among the more advanced in Europe, particularly given the universal access to LTE infrastructure and the extensive fiber footprint; investment has been focused on fiber broadband and mobile network upgrades; SIM card penetration is relatively high for the region, with a growing proportion of subscribers being on higher-Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) contract plans; while LTE services are available nationally, operators have made steady investments in 5G; the regulator has helped the network operators to develop 5G by allowing them to repurpose spectrum in the 2.1GHz and 2.4GHz bands; the regulator in mid-2022 completed auctions of spectrum in the 700MHz and 3.4GHz bands; service obligations on the licensees include the provision of services to the five main cities by the end of 2023 (2023)

domestic: nearly 10 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions; mobile-cellular subscriptions at 134 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 370; landing points for the BCS East, BCS East-West Interlink and NordBalt connecting Lithuania to Sweden, and Latvia ; further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2019)

Broadcast media

public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country

Internet users

total: 2.436 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 87% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 130

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 796,814 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 77

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 50

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 26,031 (2018)

Airports

65 (2024)

comparison ranking: 74

Heliports

2 (2024)

Pipelines

1,921 km gas, 121 km refined products (2013)

Railways

total: 1,911 km (2020) 152 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 74

Roadways

total: 83,821 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 60

Waterways

441 km (2007) (navigable year-round)

comparison ranking: 95

Merchant marine

total: 59 (2023)

by type: container ship 3, general cargo 19, oil tanker 2, other 35

comparison ranking: total 114

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Klaipeda

oil terminal(s): Butinge oil terminal

LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Operations Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); National Defense Volunteer Forces (Krašto Apsaugos Savanorių Pajegos or KASP); National Riflemen's Union (Lietuvos šaulių sąjunga) (2024)

note 1: the National Rifleman's Union is a civilian paramilitary organization supported by the Lithuanian Government that cooperates with the military but is not part of it; however, in a state of war, its armed formations would fall under the armed forces

note 2: the Lithuanian Police and State Border Guard Service are under the Ministry of Interior; in wartime, the State Border Guard Service becomes part of the armed forces

Military expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2023 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2022)
2% of GDP (2021)
2.1% of GDP (2020)
2% of GDP (2019) (approximately $1.7 billion)

comparison ranking: 37

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 17,000 active-duty personnel (13,000 Army, including about 5,000 National Defense Voluntary Forces and 2,500 conscripts); 500 Navy; 1,000 Air Force; 2,500 other, including special operations forces, logistics support, training, etc) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory is a mix of Soviet-era and more modern European and US equipment; Germany and the US have been the leading suppliers in recent years (2023)

Military service age and obligation

19-26 years of age for conscripted military service for men; 9-month service obligation; in 2015, Lithuania reinstated conscription after having converted to a professional military in 2008; 18-38 for voluntary service for men and women (2024)

note 1: Lithuania conscripts up to 4,000 males each year; conscripts are selected using an automated lottery system

note 2: as of 2020, women comprised about 12% of the military's full-time personnel

Military deployments

note: contributes about 350-550 troops to the Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine joint military brigade (LITPOLUKRBRIG), which was established in 2014; the brigade is headquartered in Poland and is comprised of an international staff, three battalions, and specialized units; units affiliated with the multinational brigade remain within the structures of the armed forces of their respective countries until the brigade is activated for participation in an international operation

Military - note

the Lithuanian Armed Forces are responsible for the defense of the country’s interests, sovereignty, and territory, fulfilling Lithuania’s commitments to NATO and European security, and contributing to UN international peacekeeping efforts; Russia is Lithuania’s primary security focus, which has only increased since the Russian seizure of Crimea in 2014 and subsequent full-scale attack on Ukraine in 2022; Lithuania has been a member of NATO since 2004 and is reliant on the Alliance as the country’s security guarantor; it is actively engaged in both NATO and EU security, as well as bilaterally with allies such as the other Baltic States, Germany, Poland, the UK, Ukraine, and the US; the Lithuanian military has participated in NATO and EU missions abroad and regularly conducts training and exercises with NATO and EU partner forces; it hosts NATO forces, is a member of the UK-led Joint Expeditionary Force, and contributes troops to a multinational brigade with Poland and Ukraine; Lithuania participated in its first UN peacekeeping mission in 1994

the Land Forces form the backbone of the country’s defense force; the active Land Forces comprise a mechanized infantry brigade and a motorized infantry brigade; they are supplemented by the part-time National Defense Volunteer Forces, which are organized into six district-based territorial units; since 2017, Lithuania has hosted a German-led multinational NATO ground force battlegroup as part of the Alliance’s Enhanced Forward Presence initiative

Lithuania has no combat aircraft but has a ground air defense unit, and NATO has provided air protection for Lithuania since 2004 through its Baltic Air Policing mission; NATO member countries that possess air combat capabilities voluntarily contribute to the mission on four-month rotations; NATO fighter aircraft are hosted at Lithuania’s Šiauliai Air Base; Lithuania’s Naval Forces have small patrol vessel and mine warfare squadrons; the Special Operations Forces have air, ground, and naval units for missions such as counterterrorism, direct action, hostage rescue, military assistance, and reconnaissance (2024)

Space

Space agency/agencies

Lithuanian Space Office (established 2019; operates under the Agency for Science, Innovation and Technology and focuses on developing links between Lithuanian space business, science, and public sectors, as well as the international space community); Lithuanian Space Association (established 2009; is an association of public and state-funded scientific and technology research institutes and private businesses behind much of Lithuania’s space program, including satellite development and ties to international space programs) (2023)

Space program overview

has a small but growing space program; operates satellites; manufactures small satellites; conducts research and development of other space-related capabilities, including in propulsion system components, infrared-based technologies, remote sensing applications, opto-electronics, and radio frequency systems, as well as those related to astronomy (has one of the oldest observatories in Europe located in Vilnius) and space applications for life and physical sciences; participates in international space programs; associate member of the European Space Agency (ESA); has cooperated with space agencies and industries of China, India, Russia, Ukraine, and the US, as well as individual ESA/EU member states; has a small commercial space sector that participates in space supply chains and small satellite production (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Lithuania-Belarus: as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Lithuania-Lativa: boundary demarcated with Latvia was completed in 1998

Lithuania-Russia: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; in January 2018, demarcation of the Lithuania-Russia border was completed

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 41,490 (Ukraine) (as of 11 March 2024)

stateless persons: 2,720 (2022)

Illicit drugs

source country for amphetamine tablets