Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991.



total: 33,851 sq km
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km


moderate winters, warm summers

Natural resources

lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land

People and Society


3,250,532 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)


Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.); note - data represent mother tongue; as of March 2023, Romanian replaced Moldovan as the name of Moldova's official language


Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic <0.1%, atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.9% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.14% (2023 est.)


Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Maia SANDU (since 24 December 2020)
head of government: Prime Minister Dorin RECEAN (since 16 February 2023)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 51 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 50 members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; all members serve 4-year terms


Economic overview

upper middle-income Eastern European economy; sustained growth reversed by COVID-19; significant remittances; Russian energy and regional dependence; agricultural exporter; declining workforce due to emigration and low fertility

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$36.637 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,000 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, grapes, apples, sugar beets, milk, potatoes, barley, plums/sloes


sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles


15.24% of GDP (2021 est.)


$4.197 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Romania 27%, Russia 9%, Italy 9%, Germany 9%, Turkey 6%, Poland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

insulated wiring, wheat, sunflower seeds, rolled iron, wine, corn, seats (2021)


$7.915 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

Romania 20%, Russia 10%, Ukraine 9%, Germany 8%, China 7%, Turkey 6%, Italy 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, insulated wiring, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
17.68 (2021 est.)

Page last updated: Wednesday, May 03, 2023