Moldova

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991.

Geography

Area

total: 33,851 sq km

land: 32,891 sq km

water: 960 sq km

Climate

moderate winters, warm summers

Natural resources

lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land

People and Society

Population

3,287,326 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)

Languages

Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.); note - data represent mother tongue

Religions

Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic <.1%, atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.9% (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.12% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Chisinau in Moldovan (Kishinev in Russian)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Maia SANDU (since 24 December 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Natalia GAVRILITA (since 6 August 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 51 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 50 members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; all members serve 4-year terms

Economy

Economic overview

upper middle-income Eastern European economy; sustained growth reversed by COVID-19; significant remittances; Russian energy and regional dependence; agricultural exporter; declining workforce due to emigration and low fertility

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$32.26 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, sunflower seed, grapes, apples, sugar beet, milk, potatoes, barley, plums/sloes

Industries

sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles

Exports

$3.24 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Romania 27%, Russia 9%, Italy 9%, Germany 9%, Turkey 6%, Poland 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

insulated wiring, sunflower seeds, wine, corn, seats (2019)

Imports

$5.93 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Romania 20%, Russia 10%, Ukraine 9%, Germany 8%, China 7%, Turkey 6%, Italy 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, insulated wiring, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -


Page last updated: Wednesday, June 15, 2022